Clinton Emailers Rattled After State Department Fires Off ‘Culpability Letters’

bill-and-hillary-1

Clinton Emailers Rattled After State Department Fires Off ‘Culpability Letters’ For Homebrew Server Messages
by Tyler Durden
Sun, 09/29/2019 – 10:30
https://www.zerohedge.com/political/clinton-allies-rattled-after-state-department-fires-flood-culpability-letters-homebrew

The State Department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security has finally finished sifting through millions of emails from Hillary Clinton’s controversial ‘basement server’ – many of which were classified, and/or blind-copied to a Gmail address bearing the name of a Chinese company according to intelligence community inspector general (ICIG) Frank Rucker.

While State Department investigators began contacting former officials around 18 months ago, the probe actually began under President Obama. In recent weeks, the State Department has contacted approximately 130 officials whose emails which went through Clinton’s special server have been retroactively classified and may now pose potential security violations, according to the Washington Post.

“This has nothing to do with who is in the White House,” said a senior State Department official. “This is about the time it took to go through millions of emails, which is about 3½ years.”

The flood of letters which began in August read “You have been identified as possibly bearing some culpability” regarding “security incidents,” according to the report.

The list of State officials being questioned includes prominent ambassadors and assistant secretaries of state responsible for U.S. policy in the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia. But it also includes dozens of current and former career bureaucrats who served as conduits for outside officials trying to get important messages to Clinton.

In most cases the bureaucrats and political appointees didn’t send the emails directly to Clinton, but passed them to William Burns, who served as deputy secretary of state, or Jake Sullivan, the former director of policy planning at the State Department. Burns and Sullivan then forwarded the messages to Clinton’s private email. -WaPo

President Trump’s opponents will likely take WaPo’s editorialized cue and accuse the president of targeting political adversaries – like the Obama administration did with the IRS. Note how WaPo is lying in order to bolster the new narrative behind the Clinton email revival – claiming that Trump “used multiple levers of his office to pressure the leader of Ukraine,” when the leader of Ukraine announced on Wednesday “Nobody pushed me” to investigate former Vice President Joe Biden – nor did he know about $400 million in US military aid Trump paused prior to a July 25 phone call.

To many of those under scrutiny, including some of the Democratic Party’s top foreign policy experts, the recent flurry of activity surrounding the Clinton email case represents a new front on which the Trump administration could be accused of employing the powers of the executive branch against perceived political adversaries.

The existence of the probe follows revelations that the president used multiple levers of his office to pressure the leader of Ukraine to pursue investigations that Trump hoped would produce damaging information about Democrats, including potential presidential rival Joe Biden. -WaPo

So while the State Department said they are bound by law to adjudicate any violations, former Obama administration officials say the probe is a ‘remarkably aggressive crackdown.’

“It is such an obscene abuse of power and time involving so many people for so many years,” said one former US official of the inquiry, adding “This has just sucked up people’s lives for years and years.”

WaPo lies again in suggesting that President Trump has no grounds to pursue Clinton associates as he has “improperly disclosed classified information to foreign officials.” Except that the president has an inherent constitutional authority to declassify information at will, meaning the rules of disclosure of classified information don’t apply to him.

Back to the Clinton email saga, WaPo reports that in many cases, “the incidents appear to center on the sending of information attributed to foreign officials, including summaries of phone conversations with foreign diplomats — a routine occurrence among State Department employees.”

There is no indication in any of the materials reviewed by The Post that the emails under scrutiny contained sensitive information about classified U.S. initiatives or programs. In one case, a former official was asked to explain dozens of messages dating back to 2009 that contained messages that foreign officials wanted relayed rapidly to Washington at a time when U.S. Foreign Service officers were equipped with BlackBerrys and other devices that were not capable of sending classified transmissions. The messages came in through “regular email” and then were forwarded through official — though unclassified — State Department channels. -WaPo

And while The Post may have no indication that any of the emails contained sensitive information about classified US initiatives or programs, they don’t disclose how many of the underlying emails they reviewed, or who they came from.

According to the report, many of those contacted in the probe have been found “not culpable” – with many letters reading that investigators “determined that the [security] incident is valid,” but that the person did not “bear any individual culpability.”

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PHOTOS: Hong Kong Protesters Embrace American Flag in Fight for Freedom

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HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP/Getty Images HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP/Getty Images

PHOTOS: Hong Kong Protesters Embrace American Flag in Fight for Freedom
HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP/Getty ImagesHECTOR RETAMAL/AFP/Getty Images
FRANCES MARTEL29 Jul 2010 5:24
https://www.breitbart.com/asia/2019/07/29/hong-kong-protesters-embrace-american-flag-fight-freedom/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_term=daily&utm_campaign=20190729&utm_content=A

The American flag has become a symbol of resistance against China in the ongoing protests in Hong Kong, prominently waved throughout the city this past weekend as police fired tear gas and rubber bullets into the peaceful crowds.
Millions of Hong Kong residents have participated in rallies since early June against a bill proposed in the city’s legislature that would have allowed China to extradite anyone present in Hong Kong by accusing him or her of breaking Chinese law. Under the “One Country, Two Systems” policy China agreed to when the U.K. handed Hong Kong over in 1997, Hong Kong must abandon any claims to sovereignty in exchange for China not imposing communist laws on the city. The protesters objected that the extradition law would violate that policy.

Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam claimed the bill was “dead” this month, but protesters astutely noted that lawmakers had tabled the bill, allowing them to revive it any time. Protesters are demanding that the Legislative Council withdraw the bill entirely.

Protests this weekend were not about the bill, but against gang violence towards protesters last week. Pro-democracy advocates congregated last week in northern Yuen Long, a rural area outside of the central city, to protest the bill. Following the protest, an estimated 100 white-clad thugs surrounded the peaceful crowds moving into the Yuen Long Mass Transit Rail (MTR) station, beating them with metal rods and bamboo sticks. Following the mob attack, 45 people were hospitalized and, despite the dozens of attackers, little more than ten people arrested.

Police have since confirmed that some in the crowd had ties to Hong Kong’s triads, or organized crime groups. Protesters in Yuen Long this weekend accused police of collaborating with the protesters, citing videos showing officers calmly chatting with some of the mob.

Protesters prominently waved American flags in Yuen Long on Saturday during a protest for which police refused to issue a permit:
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Billy H.C. Kwok/Getty Images

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Protesters are seen during a stand-off with the police in the district of Yuen Long on July 27, 2019 in Hong Kong (Billy H.C. Kwok/Getty Images).

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ANTHONY WALLACE/AFP/Getty Images

Protesters hold US flags, as commuters waiting at a light rail station watch, during a demonstration in the district of Yuen Long in Hong Kong on July 27, 2019 (Anthony Wallace/AFP/Getty Images).
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Laurel Chor/Getty Images
Protesters hold up umbrellas and American flags in the face of advancing riot police in the district of Yuen Long on July 27, 2019, in Hong Kong (Laurel Chor/Getty Images).

As Hong Kong police denied the protesters a permit to march, they attacked the crowd despite its peaceful nature, using tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse them. Journalists on the ground noted that the protesters appeared unarmed and did not move against the police when the attacks began. Video circulating on social media appeared to show elderly residents of a Yuen Long nursing home coughing and choking on tear gas seeping through the windows, angering many in Hong Kong.

Police also arrested Max Chung, the pro-democracy activist who initially requested a permit for the march. Police denied the permit despite the fact that, unlike previous protests, it was not exclusively against the Hong Kong government, but against the triads who attacked the protesters.

Protests continued Sunday despite the violence in Yuen Long on Saturday, this time within the Hong Kong city center. Protesters also waved American flags there. Some carried signs reading “We need the 2nd Amendment” and “President Trump, please liberate Hong Kong”:
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ANTHONY WALLACE/AFP/Getty Images

Protesters march during a demonstration in Hong Kong on July 28, 2019 (Anthony Wallace/AFP/Getty Images).
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Billy H.C. Kwok/Getty Images
Protesters demonstrate toward Causeway bay on July 28, 2019, in Hong Kong (Billy H.C. Kwok/Getty Images).

This weekend was not the first time the American flag surfaced as a symbol against Chinese tyranny. Pro-democracy protesters prominently waved the flag a week ago in the city center:
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ANTHONY WALLACE/AFP/Getty Images

A protester waves the US and Hong Kong flags as demonstrators occupy a road during a march against a controversial extradition bill in Hong Kong on July 21, 2019 (Anthony Wallace/AFP/Getty Images).
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ANTHONY WALLACE/AFP/Getty Images

A man waves a US and Hong Kong flag while standing on a divider after he and other protesters occupied Harcourt Road while marching against a controversial extradition bill in Hong Kong on July 21, 2019. (Anthony Wallace/AFP/Getty Images).

“We hope the U.S. and other nations will be able to help Hong Kong fight against Communist China’s policies,” a protester identified as Kelvin Wong told Bloomberg News in remarks published on July 15. “We need human rights, democracy, and freedom. These are the same values we share with the U.S. These are universal values. Now we are resisting Communist China, which doesn’t like these values but also interferes with Hong Kong.”

Wong emphasized that, despite claims from Beijing, they “are not influenced by foreign powers.”

Another protester, Wildy Chan, told the Hong Kong Free Press that same week that he was waving a U.S. flag to urge America to act in support of Hong Kong’s pro-democracy movement. Chan stated that he, in particular, supported the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act, a bill Rep. Chris Smith (R-NJ) introduced, which, if passed, would facilitate visas to Hong Kong residents to escape communist China if necessary and require the State Department to submit an annual report evaluating if “Hong Kong is sufficiently autonomous to justify special treatment by the United States for bilateral agreements and programs.”

China has dismissed the Hong Kong protest movement as an attempt by the United States to destabilize China’s economy, even given the minimal commentary on Hong Kong from the White House. President Donald Trump went as far as to recently compliment Chinese Communist Party leader Xi Jinping, stating that he has “acted responsibly” in response to protests.

“Judging from what was on the media, we see clear signs of foreign manipulation, orchestration and even organization in the relevant violent incidents,” Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said last week following Trump’s positive comments. “I hope the US will answer this question honestly and clearly: what role did the US play in the recent incidents in Hong Kong and what is your purpose behind it?”

“Though lacking self-knowledge, the US, I believe, should at least know one thing. Hong Kong belongs to China, and China does not allow any foreign interference in Hong Kong affairs. Nor will we allow any foreign forces to mess up Hong Kong,” Hua concluded. “We advise the US to withdraw its dirty hands from Hong Kong as soon as possible.”

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VERY DISTURBING: US Gives China Eminent Domain Over US Property

US Gives China Eminent
Domain Over US Property
Beyond High Treason
A. True Ott, PhD, ND
2-28-9
https://rense.com/general85/give.htm

Let’s connect some dots today, boys and girls to learn about the HIGHEST POSSIBLE TREASON that has happened in this country.

THIS IS AS REAL AND AS UGLY AS IT CAN GET.

Dot #1 China begins its covert war on the FREE American republic in the 1950’s by taking over much of the PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG manufacturing for American and British Big Pharma. This is an outgrowth of the Rothschild’s OPIUM RING PROCESSING by the British West Indies company during the 1800’s, and is brokered by the “City of London” and Washington D.C.

Dot #2 Arch-illuminist and satanist Henry Kissinger “normalizes” trade relations with China during the Nixon years.

Dot #3 Eventual LDS (Mormon) Church President Gordon B. Hinckley, via the church-owned Polynesian Cultural Center in Hawaii, establishes a “hard currency” pipeline with Bejing, exchanging bank “trade credits” for CIA/BRITISH MI6 DRUG SERVICES RENDERED into hard GOLD AND SILVER while hiding behind the cloak of “World Religion”. This is facilitated via the LDS-Church built and controlled “Shenzhen Special Economic Zone” adjacent to Hong Kong. When Hinckley is made LDS President, his first “official” visit as “World Prophet” is to China, where the Chinese Communist leaders give him a hero’s welcome and a confetti parade. (See attached paper — “Pensees of a Puzzled Pilgrim” pp 5-6 and Desert News, June 1, 1996 article: “President Hinckley Visits China”).

Dot #4 Arkansas natives Bill Clinton and Sam Walton massively increase contracts with China’s factories over 2,000%. This results in a tremendous imbalance of trade with China. Thanks to the Mormon “Special Economic Zone” — China’s communist leaders begin amassing incredible “real” wealth in gold and silver.

Dot #5 China purchases TRILLIONS of dollars worth of U.S. Treasury Bills and Bonds, paying for it with gold and silver provided by the Shenzhen Economic Zone exchanges. Much of the U.S. “national debt” is purchased from the private “Federal Reserve” banks in this manner.

Dot #6 Dr. Jeff Taubenberger of the U.S. Institute of Pathology in Ft. Dedrick MD, (The world headquarters for biologic weapons development) successfully maps the genome of the 1918 killer “flu” virus responsible for the 1918 “pandemic” that killed millions.
The worst killer virus ever to plague mankind is now ready to be used as a covert “weapon” disguised as a natural “influenza” mutations.

Dot #6 July, 2005: The Illuminati-conrolled United Nations announces that the world is long over-due for an “influenza pandemic”. The H5N1 “Avian Flu” is wrongfully demonized as a COVER.

Dot #7 December 2005: The Chinese Defense Minister, Chi Haotiaon delivers a speech to the Chinese military leaders outlining the inevitable “expansion” of China into Canada, the U.S., and Australia — He justifies this because of Chinese racial “superiority” and thus “emminent domain”. To accomplish this, American would first have to be “Cleansed” by means of a powerful “biological weapon” — causing 150 -200 MILLION AMERICAN DEATHS!!! The plan would be enacted AFTER the symbolic OLYMPIC GAMES beginning at the sacred day of 8-08-08 are concluded. China begins buying oil and gas futures, spiking the worldwide prices to historic levels.

Dot #8 March 13, 2008: A secret meeting is conducted for the U.S. House and Senate. Agents of the Club of Rome give a preview of upcoming events to elected officials who first swear an oath of secrecy. The traitors are briefed that the economy will begin its collapse in October, 2008 — and will TOTALLY collapse in mid 2009. As events unfold in 2009-2010, Congress was told of the real possibily of massive civil unrest and even Civil War being waged. Detention camps constructed to imprison civil ‘agitators’. See http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/34877
for the complete meeting agenda.

Dot #9 In September, 2008 — as soon as the Olympics are concluded, China stops buying oil and gas futures while dumping U.S. Treasury bills and bonds. Gasoline prices plummet, while the U.S. mortgage loan money becomes tightly constricted. The Club of Rome’s agenda is being implemented perfectly.

Dot #10 In October, just as explained in March, the economy indeed begins its collapse with mortgage banks going bankrupt as the Chinese dump their U.S. Securities. This causes a world-wide “rush to liquidity” as money supplies DRASTICALLY tighten.

Dot #11 Billions of worthless U.S. Government “bailout” debit entries are given to bolster failing U.S. Banks. These are “worthless” because China now controls most of the U.S. “REAL” wealth in the form of gold and silver. China refuses to continue investing credit loans to the U.S. Treasury.


Dot #12 Barack Hussein Obama is elected, promising “Change you can believe in.” After taking office in January, Obama sends Hillary Clinton on a critical mission to China and helps write H.R. 45 — a complete grab of America’s guns ala Adolph Hitler. State leaders who understand what Clinton and Obama agenda with China is about, are seeking legal “Sovereignty” to prevent the loss of property to a foreign power.


Dot #13 China agrees to continue investing in U.S. Treasury Bills only after securing the right of “eminent domain” to physically repossess foreclosed American PRIVATE PROPERTY. This move is the equivalent of an unconditional surrender following a bloody war.

This also gives the Chinese military the LEGAL RIGHT to use biological weaponry to “Clean up America all at once”. It gives them the legal right to use deadly force in removing trespassing Americans from occupying Chinese real estate.

Connect these 13 evil dots, and this is what you get:

FEDS GRANT EMINENT DOMAIN AS COLLATERAL TO CHINA FOR U.S. DEBTS

BEIJING, China — Sources at the United States Embassy in Beijing China have just CONFIRMED that the United States of America has tendered to China a written agreement which grants to the People’s Republic of China, an option to exercise Eminent Domain within the USA, as collateral for China’s continued purchase of US Treasury Notes and existing US Currency reserves.


The written agreement was brought to Beijing by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and was formalized and agreed-to during her recent trip to China.

This means that in the event the US Government defaults on its financial obligations to China, the Communist Government of China would be permitted to physically take — inside the USA — land, buildings, factories, perhaps even entire cities – to satisfy the financial obligations of the US government.

Put simply, the feds have now actually mortgaged the physical land and property of all citizens and businesses in the United States. They have given to a foreign power, their Constitutional power to “take” all of our property, as actual collateral for continued Chinese funding of US deficit spending and the continued carrying of US national debt.

This is an unimaginable betrayal of every man, woman and child in the USA. An outrage worthy of violent overthrow.

————– UPDATE 1:40 pm EST

Eminent Domain is the power of government to TAKE private property for public use without the consent of the property owner. Under our Constitution, the government can only “take” when providing “just compensation” for what they’ve taken.

Who decides what constitutes “just compensation?” The government!

Homeowners who felt the government was not paying them enough for property in past “takings” have filed lawsuits. In absolutely every such case, the value placed upon the property by the government was upheld by the courts.

Our federal government has now granted to China, this power to “take”our homes and businesses in the event the US Gov’t defaults on its debts. Let’s play this out as a worst case scenario. . . .

The US Gov’t goes belly-up and China comes in and says, “they owed us $2 Trillion in Treasury Notes and another $2 Trillion in actual cash money which is now worthless. We are taking the entire state of Hawaii and the entire state of California in lieu of this bad debt. ”

With the stroke of a Chinese chop stick, Hawaii and California — all the land and buildings in those states — are now owned by China.

The “taking” would be a “valid public use” because it was “taken” in payment of the public debt!!!!

China could then turn around and declare the value of all that land to be worth. . . . . I dunno, ten cents on a dollar?

For your $200,000 house, you get a Chinese check for $20,000.

Needless to say, the property owners would go ballistic and demand “just compensation” for what was taken. Who gets to decide what is “just?” China! Don’t think you got a fair price for what they took? No problem, sue China.

You’ll lose.

People who live in those states and own their land outright, might be able to negotiate with China to “rent” back their own property, as long as the property owner continued to pay all his taxes; but the land and buildings would belong to China.


This is what our own Government has just done to us and it is the single most vile act of betrayal in the history of human existence.

————- SECOND UPDATE 3:48 PM

In early February nine U.S. States began the process of re- asserting their Sovereignty pursuant to the Ninth and Tenth Amendments to the US Constitution; declaring null and void any actions by Congress that violated the Constitution.

The states took action to make certain the feds couldn’t give away cities or the states themselves!

This situation is going to get VERY ugly, VERY fast as one sovereign power (the feds) try to literally give away the land of other sovereign powers, (the states). This is the type of thing that starts Civil War.

Our present federal government makes the treachery and betrayal of Benedict Arnold look like child’s play.

China Speaks (pdf)

READ THIS

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Toxic 9/11 dust & smoke linked to nearly 10,000 cancer cases in New York

Toxic 9/11 dust & smoke linked to nearly 10,000 cancer cases in New York


RT
August 13, 2018

Almost 10,000 people have a cancer diagnosis that is somehow linked to breathing in hazardous particles following the September 11 Twin Tower terrorist attack in New York City, the Post has learned.

Inhaling particles from the leaked jet fuel, asbestos, cement dust and glass shards following the destruction of the World Trade Center has led to cancer proliferation among at least 9,795 first responders and other New Yorkers, the federal World Trade Center Health Program revealed to the New York Post.

The numbers continue to grow exponentially ever since the program at Mount Sinai Hospital kicked off in 2013. In 2015 the number of 9/11 cancer-linked patients stood at 3,204 while the next year it jumped to 8,188.

“We get these referrals 15 to 20 times a week,” said Dr. Michael Crane, medical director of the WTC Health Program, noting that 17 years following the tragedy older people tend to turn for medical help more often. “In an aging population, you’re going to see a rising cancer rate, no matter what.”

Since the tragedy, more than 1,700 affected persons have died, including 420 of those stricken with cancer, officials told the publication. First responders tend to suffer from thyroid cancer and skin melanoma and also face a higher risk of bladder cancer. The rest of New Yorkers exposed to toxic dust exhibit higher-than-normal rates of breast cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Leukemia and other blood-cell disorders have also been noted to be on the rise, Crane said.

This article was posted: Monday, August 13, 2018 at 6:51 am

Image of Pentagon alleged attack

Amazingly, the Bush Family had more to gain than anyone else, especially since little boy Bush was president and daddy Bush is a globalist with the New World Order regime.

The military, FBI, CIA, Secret Service all told to stand down, then when Bush is informed of the attack while with the kids in school in Florida, next thing Bush said to the public was a lie, he said that he had seen the second plane hit. Proven to be a lie.
Amazingly, downstairs in the basements of the trade center buildings, all of the stored gold was already gone. Who had access to those vaults? the Bushes.

All Images from: https://indianexpress.com/photos/picture-gallery-others/rare-photos-of-september-911-attack-the-day-that-changed-the-world-wtc-twin-tower-pentagon-us-4838430/4/

Voter Fraud: 670 Ballots Cast in Georgia Precinct with 276 Voters (There’s No Place Like Home!)


Image Credits: Joe Raedle / Getty.

Voter Fraud: 670 Ballots Cast in Georgia Precinct with 276 Voters
Voting irregularities come as state investigated other instances of voter fraud
Katherine Rodriguez | Breitbart – August 8, 2018 0 Comments
Voter Fraud: 670 Ballots Cast in Georgia Precinct with 276 Voters

Voter Fraud: 670 Ballots Cast in Georgia Precinct with 276 Voters

Six hundred and seventy ballots were cast in a Georgia precinct with 276 registered voters in the state’s primary election, according to the Georgia Secretary of State’s office.

A northeastern Georgia precinct located in Habersham County had 276 registered voters before the state’s primary elections at the end of May, but 670 votes were recorded—indicating that 276 percent of voters turned out in Georgia’s primary election, McClatchy reported.

The recently publicized voting irregularities come as the state investigated other instances of voter fraud—including one where an Atlanta City Hall staffer claimed she had to “print and deliver 500 blank absentee ballots” to an advocacy group staffer and pick up additional ballots from the Atlanta mayor’s campaign office to drop them off at an office in Fulton County.

Declassified CIA Documents Show Agency’s Control Over Mainstream Media & Academia, Collective Evolution, Arjun Walia, May 11, 2017

Declassified CIA Documents Show Agency’s Control Over Mainstream Media & Academia
Arjun WaliaMay 11, 2017
http://www.collective-evolution.com/2017/05/11/declassified-cia-documents-shows-agencies-control-over-mainstream-media-academia/

A declassified document from the CIA archives in the form of a letter from a CIA task force addressed to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency details the close relationship that exists between the CIA and mainstream media and academia.

The document states that the CIA task force “now has relationships with reporters from every major wire service, newspaper, news weekly, and television network in the nation,” and that “this has helped us turn some ‘intelligence failure’ stories into ‘intelligence success” stories,’ and has contributed to the accuracy of countless others.” Furthermore, it explains how the agency has “persuaded reporters to postpone, change, hold, or even scrap stories that could have adversely affected national security interests or jeopardized sources and methods.”

Although it is a document outlining their desire to become more open and transparent, the deception outlined by various whistleblowers (example) requires us to read between the lines and recognize that the relationships shared between intelligence agencies and our sources of information are not always warranted and pose inherent conflicts of interest.

Herein lies the problem: What is “national security,” and who determines that definition? JFK bravely told the world that the “dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweigh[] the dangers which are cited to justify it.” He also said that “there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment.”

“National security” is now an umbrella term used to justify concealing information, but who makes these decisions? You can read more about our world of secrecy and the Black Budget here.

Not only are countless documents classified every single year in North America, but false information and “fake news” are routinely dispersed, mainly by mainstream media outlets — a reality that is clearly conveyed in this document and has been expressed by multiple mainstream media journalists themselves. And as with the NSA surveillance program that was exposed by Edward Snowden, it’s a global problem.

Dr. Udo Ulfkotte, a prominent German journalist and editor for more than two decades, is one example. He blew the whistle on public television, stating that he was forced to publish the works of intelligence agencies under his own name and that noncompliance with these orders would result in him losing his job. (source)

Sharyl Attkisson and Amber Lyon, both well-known mainstream media reporters and journalists, have also exposed funded movements by political, corporate, and other special interests, and have revealed that they are routinely paid by the U.S. government as well as foreign governments to selectively report and distort information on certain events. (source)(source)

Let’s not forget about Operation Mockingbird, a CIA-based initiative to control mainstream media.

The document not only outlines the CIA’s role in media, but also the entire entertainment industry in general, lending further weight to revelations offered by celebrities like Jim Carrey. He appeared as a guest on Jimmy Kimmel Live, saying that, “For years now, talk show hosts, people on television, people in sitcoms have been, hired by the government to throw you off the tracks, to distract you, to make you laugh and stuff like that, make you happy and docile so you don’t know what’s really going on.”

While some question whether he was merely joking, the facts still remain. Another celebrity, who was clearly serious, is Roseanne Barr, who referenced the CIA’s MK Ultra mind control program — a previously classified research program through the CIA’s scientific intelligence division that tested behavioural modification and perception manipulation on human beings.

What we seem to have here is an attempt to manipulate public perception of global events through mainstream media and news publications. But what’s perhaps most interesting is the fact that a lot of people are now waking up and seeing through many of these lies and manipulation tactics. Instead of just blindly believing what we hear on television, more people are starting to think critically, do independent research, and examine a wide array of sources and information.

So many opportunities have emerged within the past few years allowing others to see this more clearly. One was the recent “fake news” epidemic, where evidence surfaced exposing information that threatened the global elite. Wikileaks is perhaps one of the greatest examples. For mainstream media to basically label everything else as “fake news” was quite ironic, given that it seems the majority of people consider mainstream media themselves to be the real “fake news,” and this is now even more evident given the information presented above in this article.
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The documents also touch upon the fact that they are constantly in touch with the entertainment industry, giving advice on scenes and direction, as well as how things happened in certain situations. Personally, I feel the industry is largely used to push propaganda, like patriotism. Patriotism is pumped into the population to support a large military in the name of “national security.” We are being fooled, wars are not waged for defence, but for offence and to push forth political agendas.

So you see, there are multiple reasons for these CIA connections to various industries.

Academia

From a young age we’re taught that getting an education is the key to living a good life. Getting a decent job, making good money, even finding the right partner — all depend on following a certain path. Yet many concepts and topics are, as previously illustrated, kept from public viewing, and this includes plenty of important science.

The U.S. intelligence community investigated parapsychology (ESP, remote viewing, telepathy, etc.) for more than two decades, for instance. Russell Targ, a physicist who has spent several decades working in a U.S. government program exploring these concepts, recently shared his experience doing so in a TED talk that is now approaching 1 million views.

Another great example of Black Budget science comes from Ben Rich, the second director of Lockheed Skunkworks, who worked there from 1975-1991. He’s been called the Father of Stealth, having overseen the development of the first stealth fighter, the F-117 Nighthawk. Before his death, Rich made several shocking open statements about the reality of UFOs and extraterrestrials.

“We already have the means to travel among the stars, but these technologies are locked up in black projects, and it would take an act of God to ever get them out to benefit humanity. Anything you can imagine, we already know how to do it.”

“We now have technology to take ET home. No it won’t take someone’s lifetime to do it. There is an error in the equations. We know what it is. We now have the capability to travel to the stars.”

“There are two types of UFOs — the ones we build and the ones ‘they’ build.”

To read more about those comments and examine the sources, you can refer to this article that goes into more detail about it.

Information like this, including testimony from hundreds of others, suggests that the “classified world” is much more advanced than our mainstream one.

This particular document states that the agency exposes administrators of academic institutions to the agency on a regular basis.

Obviously, as with any other job, the CIA would be looking for what they consider to be qualified individuals. But the document does outline its close relationship with academia in general.

This is because certain developments and information that stem from academia could threaten national security and therefore must be kept out of the curriculum, and the public domain.

Take, for example, documents obtained via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) that reveal how the U.S. government has been using a secret system to withhold the approval of some applications.

This 50-page document was obtained by Kilpatrick Towsend & Stockton, LLP, who commonly represent major tech companies that include Apple, Google, and Twitter (to name a few). You can view that entire document here. (source)

The program delaying patent applications is called the Sensitive Application Warning System (SWAS). Usually when an application is submitted for a patent approval, it requires a couple of examiners who work with the Patent Office to go through their process of approval. This process usually takes one to two years, but applications that are filed in SAWS must be approved from several people, and can be delayed for a number of years.

One great example (out of many) of delayed patent applications comes from Dr. Gerald F. Ross, who filed a patent application for a new invention he had devised to defeat the jamming of electromagnetic transmissions at specified frequencies. It was not until June 17, 2014 (almost 37 years later) that this patent was granted. (source)

It’s important to note (as reported by the Federation of American Scientists — see annotated bibliography) that there were over 5,000 inventions that were under secrecy orders at the end of fiscal year 2014, which marked the highest number of secrecy orders in effect since 1994. (source)

Steven Aftergood from the Federation of American Scientists reports:

The 1971 list indicates that patents for solar photovoltaic generators were subject to review and possible restriction if the photovoltaics were more than 20% efficient. Energy conversion systems were likewise subject to review and possible restriction if they offered conversion efficiencies “in excess of 70-80%.” (source)

This is all thanks to an act many people are unaware of. It’s called the “Invention Secrecy Act,” and it was written in 1951. Under this act, patent applications on new inventions can be subject to secrecy orders, which can restrict their publication if government agencies believe that their disclosure would be harmful to national security. (source)(source)
Final Thoughts

So, as you see, science and academia in the mainstream world can only go so far. We continue to rely on government institutions to define truth and reality for us, to outline the limits of what is possible. In many instances, these places to which we go to “learn” are actually diminishing, not supporting, our creativity and critical thinking skills. That’s not to say that there aren’t good aspects of the experience, but overall, we are not accessing our full potential.

When information is hidden from us as well as manipulated at the same time, it’s only going to spark more curiosity among the people. And that’s one aspect of the current shift in consciousness that’s happening on our planet. We’re beginning to see the human experience in a different light, and starting to recognize that the time for change is really here. What are we going to do about it?

Related CE Article: The CIA & The Media: 50 Facts The World Should Know

First Cuba, Now China? An American Falls Ill After ‘Abnormal’ Sounds


First Cuba, Now China? An American Falls Ill After ‘Abnormal’ Sounds
By Editor May 23, 2018 No Comments
First Cuba, Now China? An American Falls Ill After ‘Abnormal’ Sounds
The United States Consulate in Guangzhou, China. The State Department said a government employee posted in the city had reported “subtle and vague, but abnormal, sensations of sound and pressure.” U.S. Department of State
http://www.theeventchronicle.com/news/asia/first-cuba-now-china-an-american-falls-ill-after-abnormal-sounds-2/
By Chris Buckley

BEIJING — An American government employee posted in southern China has signs of possible brain injury after reporting disturbing sounds and sensations, the State Department said on Wednesday, in events that seemed to draw parallels with mysterious ailments that struck American diplomats in Cuba.

The State Department warning, issued through the United States Consulate in Guangzhou, a city in southern China, advised American citizens in China to seek medical help if they felt similar symptoms. But it said that no other cases had been reported.

“A U.S. government employee in China recently reported subtle and vague, but abnormal, sensations of sound and pressure,” the health alert said. “We do not currently know what caused the reported symptoms and we are not aware of any similar situations in China, either inside or outside of the diplomatic community.”

The employee was working in Guangzhou, and “reported experiencing a variety of physical symptoms” from late 2017 until April, Jinnie Lee, a spokeswoman for the United States Embassy in Beijing, said in an emailed response to questions.

On Friday, “the embassy was told that the clinical findings of this evaluation matched mild traumatic brain injury,” Ms. Lee said. She said she could not reveal any more details to protect the employee’s privacy. Mild traumatic brain injury can show up as headache, dizziness, nausea, poor memory and a general foggy sensation.

The State Department “is taking this incident very seriously and is working to determine the cause and impact of the incident,” Ms. Lee said. “The Chinese government has assured us they are also investigating and taking appropriate measures.”

The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not immediately answer faxed questions about the ill American.

The American statements did not say that officials suspected any foul play by the Chinese authorities. Even so, if the illness remains unsolved, it could become a complicating irritant at a time when Beijing and Washington are already embroiled in tensions over trade and investment, and when American distrust of China is growing on many fronts.

The echoes of the burst of illnesses suffered by American diplomats in Cuba may add to those complications.

Starting in late 2016, diplomats posted to the United States Embassy in Havana began complaining of hearing strange, wrenching noises and suffering symptoms like headaches, dizziness and loss of hearing. A total of 24 Americans were confirmed as suffering from the attacks, most of them diplomats and some diplomats’ spouses.

The cause of the illnesses in Cuba has not been confirmed, but American suspicions that the Cuban government was behind them, or at least knew who was, have added to a sharp deterioration in ties under the Trump administration. The United States has expelled at least 17 Cuban diplomats to underscore its view that Cuba bears some responsibility.

But the Cuban government has denied any role, and experts have sharply disagreed over the likely cause of the illnesses. Some have said they probably resulted from sonic equipment that was deliberately or accidentally set to emit damaging sounds. Others have said that the cases were probably the result of psychological suggestion.

“The most challenging factor is the lack of certainty about the causative agent and, therefore, the precise mechanism of the injuries suffered,” Charles Rosenfarb, the medical director of the State Department’s Bureau of Medical Services, told lawmakers investigating the illnesses.

About 2,000 employees of the United States government are posted in China, said Ms. Lee, the embassy spokeswoman. Diplomats based in the country are probably among the most closely watched by Chinese security services.

But it is unclear what might drive Chinese agents to risk inflicting brain injury on an American government employee, especially in a heavily commercial posting like Guangzhou, which is 1,200 miles south of Beijing. The United States Consulate there is housed in a secure, boxlike building that was opened in 2013.

The Global Times, a Beijing newspaper that often gives strident voice to the Chinese government’s views, said in an online editorial that the notion that China would attack foreign government personnel was “totally preposterous.”

“We’re very sure that the ‘brain injury’ to the American consulate employee can’t possibly have any ‘background,’” the editorial said. “There should be repeated screening for individual health causes, including psychological causes.”

Still, the State Department was not taking chances.

“While in China, if you experience any unusual acute auditory or sensory phenomena accompanied by unusual sounds or piercing noises, do not attempt to locate their source,” the notice from the consulate said. “Instead, move to a location where the sounds are not present.”

Keith Bradsher contributed reporting from Hong Kong. Karoline Kan contributed research from Beijing.

Threat Journal from October 17, 2015

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According to Chief of Naval Operation Admiral John Richardson, Chief of Naval Operations, “It should not be a surprise to anybody that we would exercise freedom of navigation through wherever international law will allow.”

Last week, China’s Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying also warned against any such patrols, saying, “We will never allow any country to violate China’s territorial waters and airspace in the Spratly Islands, in the name of protecting freedom of navigation and over flight.”

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Readers may also recall that in November 2013, China declared an air defense identification zone over most of the disputed East China Sea, enraging Japan. Chinese authorities began enforcing ADIZ using military aircraft, requiring all aircraft flying through the area identify themselves. While commercial airlines have complied, U.S. and Japanese military aircraft have not.

This past March, China publicly stated they may take a similar step in the S. China sea if they perceived a great enough threat.

As previously reported by AlertsUSA Threat journal on multiple occasions over the past several years, China’s efforts at seizing control of the waters and airspace of a large chunk of the China Sea region is not only due to the rich fishing grounds and sizeable untapped reserves of oil and natural gas in the area, but also because the country is now deploying nuclear armed ballistic missile submarines and aircraft carriers from bases on Hainan Island as well as the mainland coast. As such, operational buffer space is needed.

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What You Need To Know
On Tuesday, subscribers were notified of a new audio message from ISIS spokesman Abu Mohammad al-Adnani within which he calls on Muslim youth world-wide to launch a “Holy War” against US and Russia in retaliation for their “crusader’s war” on Muslims in Syria. Quoting Adnani, “Islamic youth everywhere, ignite jihad against the Russians and the Americans in their crusaders’ war against Muslims.”

AlertsUSA again cautions readers that in the days and weeks following previous Islamic State messages calling for faithful Muslims in the West to carry out attacks, such attacks have in fact taken place. The first such call was in Sept of 2014 when ISIS released a video within which Adnani, called for attacks on both soldiers and civilians in Australia, France, Canada and the US. Since that and subsequent videos, the world has in fact seen attacks on soldiers, civilians and government buildings in Canada (see this and this ), a hostage siege in a coffee shop in Australia, multiple attacks by Muslims on police here in the U.S. (see this and this ) and multiple attacks in and around Paris, France (see this, this and this).

AlertsUSA continues to monitor the overall domestic and international threat environment and will immediately notify service subscribers via SMS messages of new alerts, warnings and advisories or any developments which signal a change the overall threat picture for American citizens as events warrant.


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World News Roundup
Oct 17, 2015

Other Developments We Are Following

AMERICAS

Putin Calls U.S. `Weak’ on Syria as Russia Talks Are Shunned
A Second Snowden Has Leaked a Mother Lode of Drone Docs
Obama U-turn on troops withdrawal makes Afghanistan an election issue
Narco planes, millions in payloads, fly past Peru military
Cyber threat prompts the Navy to reinstate celestial navigation lessons
Pentagon Could Be ‘Shredding’ Docs About Female Rangers

EUROPE

Jihadis declare Sweden first European ‘caliphate’
US to place army equipment in Poland before July
Navy to participate in missile defense test in Europe
Merkel faces domestic revolt over refugee welcome
Hungary says fence finished on Croatian border
Swiss anti-immigration party set for win in national elections

MIDDLE EAST

Iran ‘deploys troops’ to help Syrian army offensive
Russian Military Uses Syria as Proving Ground, and West Takes Notice
Iran airs unseen footage of secret underground missile base
U.S. military might already have the data to identify Islamic State leaders
Turkey begins to build a wall along its border with Syria
Turkey warns U.S., Russia against backing Kurdish militia in Syria
Afghanistan decision seals Obama’s legacy as the ‘twilight war’ president
Isis Inc: how oil fuels the jihadi terrorists

ASIA

Chinese admiral visits Iran, wants closer defense cooperation
China’s Air Force Can Now Launch Long-Range, Precision Strikes
How to Challenge China’s New Islands? Carefully
Which South China Sea Island Holds the Greatest Military Significance?
Japan restarts second nuclear reactor despite public opposition


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In From Enews: “US gov’t analysis says Fukushima is more serious than ‘China Syndrome’ — Destroyed reactors suffered worst type of containment failure”

US gov’t analysis says Fukushima is more serious than ‘China Syndrome’ — Destroyed reactors suffered worst type of containment failure (PHOTOS)

 
Published: October 8th, 2014 at 8:35 am ET
By
Email Articlehttp://enenews.com/govt-analysis-fukushima-serious-china-syndrome-worst-type-containment-failure-all-3-reactors
 

US Department of Energy, September 2013 (emphasis added): A severe earthquake and tsunami… caused significant damages on the reactors in Fukushima… [including] containment damage… and intensive radioactivity release… This paper reviews and compares a typical BWR SPAR Level 2 model with [what] occurred in Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3. It shows that the SPAR Level 2 model… could very reasonably describe the accident progression for a real and complicated nuclear accident… SPAR Level 2 model predicts that the containment integrity of Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 would be compromised by overpressure failure prior to or at core damage, which would be further impaired by drywell shell melt-through after vessel failure… The fission product release categories of Daiichi Units 1 to 3 are all classified as large early release in SPAR model… This work was sponsored by the NRC…

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on Early Releases (pdf): Generally, the most severe [containment] failure modes are ones that occur early in time (before or during reactor vessel failure) so that there is little settling or other retention of radionuclides in the containment… ruptures are more likely to lead to severe consequences… [T]he worst failures are failures that occur early and allow rapid, unscrubbed transit of radionuclides out of the containment…

NRC on Containment Failure Due to Drywell Shell Melt-through (pdf): There are two basic types of meltthrough to consider. First is the possibility of basemat meltthrough (the China Syndrome)… This failure mode is not generally catastrophic, because of the long time available for emergency response actions and the possibility of some retention in the soil.The second type of meltthrough is most applicable to Mark I BWR containments [All 3 Fukushima reactors used Mark I boiling water reactor containments]. In this case,molten material can exit the area beneath the reactor and flow across the floor, directly contacting the steel liner and causing it to fail. This type of failure… can happen much more quickly than basemat meltthrough and can lead to more serious consequences… A phenomenon of importance primarily for Mark I BWRs is shell (liner) meltthrough… The Mark I drywell floor area is small and the drywell shell is within ten feet of the pedestal doorway…

NRC on Containment Failure Due to Overpressure (pdf): Overpressure can theoretically lead to either leakage or large ruptureSteel containments are susceptible to rupture [if] the containment continues to pressurize. Given sufficient pressure, a crack in a steel containment can propagate catastrophically… a large rupture of the containment can lead to rapid transport of radionuclides to the environment with minimal retention.

NRC on Mark I BWR Containment Failure (pdf): [I]n general, Mark I containments are more likely to fail during a severe accident… However, the ranges of predicted failure probabilities are quite high for all BWR containment designs… BWR containment groups found a significant probability of early or late structural failure, given core damage.

See also: French Nuclear Experts: Did corium pierce steel liners of Fukushima reactors? How deep did it erode concrete? (VIDEO)

 
Published: October 8th, 2014 at 8:35 am ET
By
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187 comments

Related Posts

  1. Fukushima Boss: “The worst-case scenario is a China syndrome” where fuels leaves containment — Top Gov’t Official: Strong possibility fuel outside containment December 29, 2011

  2. “Gross containment failure” of Fukushima reactors — Now we are seeing plutonium far from plant April 25, 2013

  3. TV: ‘China Syndrome’ at Fukushima plant? Recent dramatic spikes in contamination show something is changing — Has a containment structure given way? (VIDEO) August 8, 2013

  4. Yomiuri on China Syndrome: Gov’t secretly figured out how far the melted fuel would burn through reactor pedestals — “Worst-possible scenario” October 16, 2011

  5. Asahi: Tepco ‘failure’ may have increased Fukushima radiation release — Concern over ‘lethal levels’ escaping from ruptured containment vessel June 5, 2013

http://enenews.com/nuclear-expert-found-plutonium-fukushima-mysterious-release-fully-understood-expected-govt-expert-dont-down-rabbit-hole-speculation-about-plutonium-speculation-about-other-fuel-video

 

Nuclear Expert: We found ‘mystery’ Fukushima plutonium; Why it’s there is yet to be understood, this was not expected — US Gov’t Expert: I don’t want to go down the rabbit hole too far… There’s speculation about plutonium fuel and about what other fuel they were using (VIDEO)

Published: September 26th, 2014 at 1:06 am ET
By ENENews

Princeton University’s Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), presentation by Georg Steinhauser of Colorado State University, scheduled for Nov. 5, 2014 (emphasis added): Radionuclide Analysis in Environmental Research after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident — The Fukushima nuclear accident will remain in public memory as one of the worst environmental disasters of the 21st century…  Radionuclide monitoring is essential to understanding radioecological consequences and effects on food safety… Monitoring also is central to forensic work that may help understand the accident and its chronology. To date most of radionuclide monitoring has focused on… 137Cs, 131I, and 132Te. Relatively little work has been done on the monitoring of difficult radionuclides such as 90Sr or plutoniumthat are highly health relevant… Our analyses revealed relatively high concentrations of 90Sr; however, these activity concentrations were exceeded by 137Cs by usually 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. In two spots within the exclusion zone we could also prove environmental presence of plutonium from Fukushima. Our studies show… amounts of… plutonium have been emitted from the reactors, which was not expected for this accident scenario. Themechanisms of release of these radionuclides are not yet fully understood.

Fukushima

Scientific Reports (Nature), Dec. 2013: Since the 1940s, plutonium isotopes have been produced and released into the environment due to human nuclear activities, including… accidents of nuclear power plants [like the] Fukushima accident… Among the 20 isotopes of Pu, 239Pu and 240Pu with half-lives of 24,110 yr and 6,561 yr, respectively, are the most important ones due to their highly radiological toxicities and long-term persistence… Based on the significantly different isotopic composition of Pu related to its production and releases, the measurement of isotopic ratios and decay products of Pu in the environmental materials can be used to identify its source term and age.

US Defense Threat Reduction Agency presentation ‘Operation Tomodachi Radiological Waterborne Hazards’, 92nd American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting (at 12:00 in): At the beginning – I don’t want to go down a rabbit hole too far – this nuclear power plant, as in any radiological event, what are the radionuclides? We don’t know the inventory. We can kind of guess at it because we know what the plant has from a practiced a standard, or whatever they publish for the IAEA. But once again, for the discrete radionuclides, what is that? What are those radionuclides? That was the one part that we really had to grapple with… So we had to actually backtrack, look at the — as much as we could — the time history associated with that particular nuclear power plant. Look at what actually they were using, and the fuel rods they were using. There was speculation about plutonium. There’s speculation about what other they were using.

See also: Secret Japan nuclear bomb program covered up using nuclear power industry — Enough to build arsenal larger than China, India and Pakistan combined

Watch DTRA’s presentation here

Published: September 26th, 2014 at 1:06 am ET
By ENENews
Email Article
234 comments

 

Related Posts

  1. A. Times: Speculation that “supercritical fission event” occurred at Fukushima reactor irradiating plutonium, says nuclear expert — Explosion so massive investigators found fuel rod fragments a mile awayMarch 9, 2012
  2. NPR: Scientists test for Fukushima plutonium being transported in Pacific — Study: Plutonium particles found to have “high environmental mobility” — Expert: Fuel materials may be flowing from plant, “What is actually contained in releases?” (AUDIO)February 12, 2014
  3. New Study: Aerosolized plutonium from Fukushima detected in Europe — Spent fuel indicatedJanuary 2, 2012
  4. Gov’t Expert: Plutonium is certainly being discharged into Pacific Ocean from Fukushima plant; Flowing out of ruptured containments — TV: Reactor water turns into ‘yellowish, fizzing liquid’ from damaged fuel rods… “It actually vibrates” (PHOTO & VIDEO)July 1, 2014
  5. Scientists: Plutonium released from Fukushima “is of radiological concern”; Reactor must be source, not spent fuel pool — Study: Plutonium found 120 km from plant; “Pu and non-natural uranium certainly increased in environment”April 21, 2014

September 26th, 2014 | Category: Audio/Video ClipsFukushima DaiichiJapan (Fukushima)Plutonium

« Newly released data shows Florida hit with highest level of radioactive material from Fukushima measured anywhere in world outside Japan — #1 out of more than 1,500 test results — Total radioactive iodine was up to 500% of amount reported

Nuclear Professor: Blast at Fukushima Reactor 3 was like “exploding vortex ring” — Ejection of nuclear fuel implies there was a “criticality excursion” and steam explosion — Black smoke may have been burning MOX and uranium (PHOTOS)

 

 

 

 

http://enenews.com/florida-highest-iodine-131-reading-ctbto-monitoring-station-

world-march-22-23-charts

« NOW: Smoke/steam rising from Fukushima, April 18 at 6:00 am (PHOTO)

Power supply to common spent fuel pool ‘stopped’ at 2:34 pm on April 17 — TEPCO ‘investigating the details of the cause’ »

Melbourne, Florida had highest iodine-131 reading of any CTBTO monitoring station in the world from March 22-23 (CHART)

Published: April 17th, 2011 at 5:30 pm ET
By ENENews

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Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization measurements, EURAD project via Rhenish Institute for Environmental Research at the University of Cologne, April 17, 2011:  First measurements are now available from the CTBTO. …Based on these observations a new estimation of the emission rate was done and the transport calculations were updated.

 

Radionuclide Station 72 (USA Sud-Ost) in Melbourne, Florida is the light blue line with triangles:

Click chart to enlarge

Location of 72 (USA Sud-Ost):

Click map to enlarge

 

See also: EPA: Florida rain has third most Cs-134 and fifth most I-131 of 72 samples taken in US (h/t xdrfox)

 

Published: April 17th, 2011 at 5:30 pm ET
By ENENews
Email Article
23 comments

Related Posts

  1. Florida had highest single day Iodine-131 concentration of any US monitoring station after FukushimaJune 7, 2012
  2. EPA: Florida rain has third most Cs-134 and fifth most I-131 of 72 samples taken in USApril 15, 2011
  3. Radioactive iodine detected by Tampa-area nuclear plant — “Iodine travels through the air very easily”March 26, 2011
  4. SURFACE forecast shows radioactive Xenon-133 lingering over Florida, Eastern Gulf (VIDEO)March 21, 2011
  5. “High concentrations” of radiation hit US and Canada — Plume was rich in Cesium-137 and “close to the surface” from Vancouver southward — See also Hawaii, Florida (MAPS)October 28, 2011

April 17th, 2011 | Tags: CTBTOFloridaJapan (Fukushima)NuclearRadiationRadionuclide StationUS | Category: Florida

« NOW: Smoke/steam rising from Fukushima, April 18 at 6:00 am (PHOTO)

Power supply to common spent fuel pool ‘stopped’ at 2:34 pm on April 17 — TEPCO ‘investigating the details of the cause

 

 

http://enenews.com/report-secret-japan-nuclear-bomb-program-covered-up-by-nuclear-power-industry-enough-to-build-arsenal-larger-than-china-india-and-pakistan-combined

 

*UPDATED* Report: Faxes show Fukushima boss Yoshida aware plants damaged by quakes, not tsunami

Needle goes above scale on alpha radiation detector in Minamisoma — Most sensitive setting (VIDEO) »

NSNS: Secret Japan nuclear bomb program covered up using nuclear power industry — Enough to build arsenal larger than China, India and Pakistan combined

Published: April 9th, 2012 at 12:25 pm ET
By ENENews
Email Article
70 comments

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Title: United States Circumvented Laws To Help Japan Accumulate Tons of Plutonium
Source: National Security News Service

Author: Joseph Trento

Date: April 9th, 2012

The United States deliberately allowed Japan access to the United States’ most secret nuclear weapons facilities while it transferred tens of billions of dollars worth of American tax paid research that has allowed Japan to amass 70 tons of weapons grade plutonium since the 1980s, a National Security News Service investigation reveals. […] the United States has known about a secret nuclear weapons program in Japan since the 1960s, according to CIA reports.

[…] The Reagan and George H.W. Bush administrations permitted sensitive technology and nuclear materials to be transferred to Japan despite laws and treaties preventing such transfers. […]

While Japan has refrained from deploying nuclear weapons and remains under an umbrella of U.S. nuclear protection, NSNS has learned that the country has used its electrical utility companies as a cover to allow the country to amass enough nuclear weapons materials to build a nuclear arsenal larger than China, India and Pakistan combined. […]

That secret effort was hidden in a nuclear power program that by March 11, 2011– the day the earthquake and tsunami overwhelmed the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant – had amassed 70 metric tons of plutonium. Like its use of civilian nuclear power to hide a secret bomb program, Japan used peaceful space exploration as a cover for developing sophisticated nuclear weapons delivery systems.

Political leaders in Japan understood that the only way the Japanese people could be convinced to allow nuclear power into their lives was if a long line of governments and industry hid any military application. For that reason, a succession of Japanese governments colluded on a bomb program disguised as innocent energy and civil space programs. […]

Read the report here

Published: April 9th, 2012 at 12:25 pm ET
By ENENews
Email Article
70 comments

Related Posts

  1. Mainichi: Japan’s secret promise with U.S. to burn plutonium — “It is abnormal for sure” — “Expected to stir up controversy”July 2, 2013
  2. AP: Link between nuclear weapons and nuclear power is “becoming increasingly clear” says Japan professor — Nuclear power industry not thrilled people are talking about itJuly 31, 2012
  3. Mainichi reveals “Secret” at Japan nuke plant — Country has ‘latent’ possession of nuclear weaponsOctober 29, 2011
  4. ‘Spine chilling’ thought of an uninhabitable Tokyo pushed former Prime Minister to say no to nuclear power — Secret report will add to suspicions that gov’t still downplaying impact of Fukushima radiationJanuary 26, 2012
  5. “Complete Information Control”: Japan newspapers receive much frightening info that’s covered up — Some evacuees died from acute symptoms yet not reported — Journalists scaredAugust 16, 2012

April 9th, 2012 | Category: Coverups?Japan (Fukushima)

« *UPDATED* Report: Faxes show Fukushima boss Yoshida aware plants damaged by quakes, not tsunami

 

 

 

http://www.dcbureau.org/201204097128/national-security-news-service/united-states-circumvented-laws-to-help-japan-accumulate-tons-of-plutonium.html

 

United States Circumvented Laws To Help Japan Accumulate Tons of Plutonium

By Joseph Trento, on April 9th, 2012

National Security News Service | 20 comments

Monju Nuclear Power Plant

The United States deliberately allowed Japan access to the United States’ most secret nuclear weapons facilities while it transferred tens of billions of dollars worth of American tax paid research that has allowed Japan to amass 70 tons of weapons grade plutonium since the 1980s, a National Security News Service investigation reveals. These activities repeatedly violated U.S. laws regarding controls of sensitive nuclear materials that could be diverted to weapons programs in Japan. The NSNS investigation found that the United States has known about a secret nuclear weapons program in Japan since the 1960s, according to CIA reports.

President Reagan and Vice President Bush

The diversion of U.S. classified technology began during the Reagan administration after it allowed a $10 billion reactor sale to China. Japan protested that sensitive technology was being sold to a potential nuclear adversary. The Reagan and George H.W. Bush administrations permitted sensitive technology and nuclear materials to be transferred to Japan despite laws and treaties preventing such transfers. Highly sensitive technology on plutonium separation from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site and Hanford nuclear weapons complex, as well as tens of billions of dollars worth of breeder reactor research was turned over to Japan with almost no safeguards against proliferation. Japanese scientist and technicians were given access to both Hanford and Savannah River as part of the transfer process.

While Japan has refrained from deploying nuclear weapons and remains under an umbrella of U.S. nuclear protection, NSNS has learned that the country has used its electrical utility companies as a cover to allow the country to amass enough nuclear weapons materials to build a nuclear arsenal larger than China, India and Pakistan combined.   This deliberate proliferation by the United States fuels arguments by countries like Iran that the original nuclear powers engage in proliferation despite treaty and internal legal obligations. Russia, France, Great Britain as well as the United States created civilian nuclear power industries around the world from their weapons complexes that amount to government-owned or subsidized industries. Israel, like Japan, has been a major beneficiary and, like Japan, has had nuclear weapons capabilities since the 1960s.

A year ago a natural disaster combined with a man-made tragedy decimated Northern Japan and came close to making Tokyo, a city of 30 million people, uninhabitable. Nuclear tragedies plague Japan’s modern history. It is the only nation in the world attacked with nuclear weapons. In March 2011, after a tsunami swept on shore, hydrogen explosions and the subsequent meltdowns of three reactors at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant spewed radiation across the region. Like the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan will face the aftermath for generations. A twelve-mile area around the site is considered uninhabitable. It is a national sacrifice zone.

The Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

How Japan ended up in this nuclear nightmare is a subject the National Security News Service has been investigating since 1991. We learned that Japan had a dual use nuclear program. The public program was to develop and provide unlimited energy for the country. But there was also a secret component, an undeclared nuclear weapons program that would allow Japan to amass enough nuclear material and technology to become a major nuclear power on short notice.

That secret effort was hidden in a nuclear power program that by March 11, 2011– the day the earthquake and tsunami overwhelmed the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant – had amassed 70 metric tons of plutonium. Like its use of civilian nuclear power to hide a secret bomb program, Japan used peaceful space exploration as a cover for developing sophisticated nuclear weapons delivery systems.

Political leaders in Japan understood that the only way the Japanese people could be convinced to allow nuclear power into their lives was if a long line of governments and industry hid any military application. For that reason, a succession of Japanese governments colluded on a bomb program disguised as innocent energy and civil space programs. The irony, of course, is that Japan had gone to war in 1941 to secure its energy future only to become the sole nation attacked with nuclear weapons.

Tokyo Electric Power Company

Energy has always been Japan’s Achilles’ heel. Her need for oil in the face of an American embargo triggered Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, and the continued shortage was a recurring theme in her defeat in that war. Only one act could take more credit for Japan’s humiliation – the splitting of the atom that gave birth to the nuclear bomb. Now Japan would turn that same atom to its own purposes — to ensure a stable source of energy well into the next century and, equally important, to ensure that the homeland never again suffered the indignity of defeat.

Japan approached the nuclear problem the same way it tackled the electronics and automobile industries. A core group of companies were each given key tasks with long-term profit potential. Then the government nurtured these companies with whatever financial, technological and regulatory support needed to assure their success. The strategy worked brilliantly to bring Japan from post-war oblivion to economic dominance in a single generation.

The five companies designated for the development of nuclear technologies had to make major strides beyond the conventional light water reactors that had become fixtures in Japan under U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace program in the 1950s. Japan would have to do what the Americans and Europeans had failed to do – make an experimental breeder program a commercial success. Their hubris convinced them that they could. The Japanese, after all, were the masters of the industrial process. They had turned out automobiles, televisions and microchips superior to the Americans, with better quality and at less cost. Nuclear accidents are almost always the result of human error: sloppy operators without the proper education or training or who did not install enough redundancies. Such things happen to Americans and Russians,but t not to Japanese.

Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato

As China, North Korea, India and Pakistan developed nuclear weapon systems, Japan and her Western allies strengthened their alliances to counter the burgeoning threat. From a secret meeting between U.S. President Lyndon Johnson and Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato in the 1960s and the participation of several subsequent American and Japanese leaders, the secret transfer of nuclear technology was part of an international strategy to fortify Japan against an ever-escalating East Asian arms race. This policy culminated during the Reagan administration in legislation that dramatically changed U.S. policy. The United States ceded virtually all control of U.S.-origin nuclear materials shipped to Japan.

To the detriment of the world and her people, the Japanese government exploited the Japanese public’s well-known abhorrence of nuclear weapons to discourage the media and historians from delving into its nuclear weapons activities. Consequently, until the March 2011 tragedy, the Japanese nuclear industry had largely remained hidden from critical eyes. The less than thorough International Atomic Energy Agency, the world’s proliferation safeguard agency, also turned a blind eye.

In a rare glimpse of a Japanese industry that has remained top secret for so many decades, our investigation raises serious concerns about Japanese and Western nuclear policies and the officials who shaped those policies during and after the Cold War. International corporations and officials sacrificed the safety and security of the public to carry out the deception. Under the guise of a peaceful nuclear power program, they made huge profits.

 

Japan Earthquake

F-Go: The First Japanese Nuclear Weapons Program

In the early 1940s, with the world locked in the bloodiest conflict in human history, scientists in Germany, Great Britain, the United States and Japan struggled to unlock from the atom a weapon of almost inconceivable power. This race to turn theory into devastating reality formed a secret subtext to the war that destroyed millions of lives using industrial warfare. In the area of theoretical physics, Japan was as advanced as her European and American rivals. She lacked only the raw materials and the sheer industrial excess to turn those materials into an atomic bomb. But Japan’s war machine was nothing if not resourceful.

Yoshio Nishina

Since 1940, the Japanese had been aggressively researching the science of the nuclear chain reaction. Dr. Yoshio Nishina had been nominated for the Nobel Prize for his pre-war work in nuclear physics. Now he and a team of young scientists worked tirelessly at the Riken, the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, to beat the Americans to the bomb. After two years of preliminary research, the atom bomb program called F-Go began in Kyoto in 1942. By 1943, Japan’s Manhattan Project had not only produced a cyclotron that could separate bomb-grade uranium, but also had developed a team of nuclear scientists with the knowledge to unleash the atom’s unknown power. As America built a uranium enrichment plant in the Washington desert so enormous it drew every watt of electricity from the Grand Coulee Dam, the Japanese scoured their empire for enough raw uranium to make their own bomb, with only limited success.

Japan looked to Nazi Germany for help. The Nazis, too, had been pursuing the nuclear bomb. But, by early 1945, the Allies were on the Rhine and the Russians had taken Prussia. In a last-ditch effort, Hitler dispatched a U-boat to Japan loaded with 1,200 pounds of uranium. The submarine never arrived. American warships captured it in May 1945. Two Japanese officers on board the submarine committed suicide and the shipment of uranium was diverted to Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for use in the American Manhattan Project. Without the uranium, Japan could not produce more than one or two small atomic bombs.

As the bomb programs in both countries neared completion in 1944, General Douglas MacArthur’s island-hopping campaign drew closer to Japan’s home islands. Fleets of B-29 bombers rained fire on Tokyo and other major cities. Nishina had to move his effort to the tiny hamlet of Hungman in what is now North Korea. The move cost the Japanese program three months.

On August 6, 1945, the Enola Gay dropped a single atomic bomb over Hiroshima. The blast killed more than 70,000 people outright, and in the days and weeks to come thousands more succumbed.

When word of the blast reached Nishina, he knew immediately that the Americans had beaten him to the prize. But he also had implicit confirmation that his own atomic bomb could work. Nishina and his team worked tirelessly to ready their own test. Historians such as Robert Wilcox and Atlanta Journal Constitution writer David Snell believe that they succeeded. Wilcox writes that on August 12, 1945 – three days after the Nagasaki bombing and three days before Japan signed the articles of surrender – Japan tested a partially successful bomb in Hungnam. By then the effort was merely symbolic. Japan lacked the means to produce more weapons or to deliver them accurately to the United States.

As Japan rebuilt after the war, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki came to represent the folly of Japan’s imperial aspirations as well as American inhumanity toward the Japanese. The Japanese people held nuclear weapons in abhorrence. Japan’s leaders shared that view, but, having been on the receiving end of nuclear warfare, also developed a special appreciation for the bomb’s strategic value.

As the war ended, thousands of American troops occupied Japan. After the nuclear attacks on Japan, the United States feared that the desire and ability to create this power would spread throughout the world. Washington learned that Japan had been much closer to its own nuclear bomb than previously thought. Destroying Japan’s nuclear-weapons capability became a high priority. In addition to negotiating international non-proliferation agreements, U.S. occupation troops destroyed several cyclotrons and other vestiges of Japan’s atomic bomb project to prevent Japan from resuming its nuclear program. Though the troops could demolish the physical remnants of the F-Go project, they could not destroy the enormous body of knowledge Nishina and his team had accumulated during the war.

The Beginning the Japan’s Nuclear Program

In the years to come the men behind F-Go would become the leaders of Japan’s nuclear power program. Their first priority was to stockpile enough uranium to ensure that nuclear research could continue in Japan.

The war and the atomic blasts that ended it left a strong and enduring impression on the Japanese people. They abhorred the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But the Japanese leadership recognized that in nuclear power there was an alternative to foreign energy dependence, a dependence that had hindered Japan since her entry into the industrial era.

With the surrender of Japan, the United States became the preeminent power in the Pacific. But that position was challenged in 1949 with the communist victory in China and successful nuclear tests by the Soviet Union. The communists were challenging America in the Pacific, and Japan suddenly shifted from vanquished adversary to valuable ally.

The United States was completely unprepared when North Korean troops swarmed south in 1952. Soon poorly armed, under-trained American Marines were surrounded in Pusan with their backs to the sea. For the first of many times during the Korean War, the American military commander, Gen. Douglass MacArthur, lobbied President Truman to use nuclear weapons.

Those weapons were stored on the Japanese island of Okinawa. While American troops faced annihilation in Pusan, American B-29s waited with engines running to bomb targets in China and Korea. Later in the war, when Chinese troops entered Korea, nuclear-laden bombers flying from Japan would actually penetrate Chinese and North Korean airspace. One jet fighter bomber was shot down.

The Korean War is an important milestone for Japan. Only seven years after the most humiliating defeat in its three-thousand-year history, Japan served as the staging ground for the same military that had defeated her. Japan’s own military at the time was practically nonexistent. As humiliating as the American servicemen who frequented Tokyo’s nickel brothels was the realization that Japan’s defense was wholly in American hands. As Truman played the game of nuclear brinkmanship with the Chinese, it became apparent that Japan’s defense now relied on the same nuclear bombs that had sealed her World War II defeat.

In the early 1950s, the United States aggressively urged Tokyo to get involved in the nuclear power business. Having witnessed the destructive power of nuclear energy, President Eisenhower was determined to keep it under strict control. He also realized that the world would never accept a complete U.S. monopoly on atom-splitting technology, so he developed an alternative — Atoms for Peace. Eisenhower gave resource-starved countries like Japan and India nuclear power reactors as a form of technical, economic and moral support. Lacking the indigenous resources to rebuild its economy and infrastructure, Japan quickly turned to nuclear power as the answer for its chronically energy-starved economy.

With the help of the American Atoms for Peace program, Japan began to develop a full-scale nuclear power industry. The Japanese sent scores of scientists to America for training in nuclear energy development. Desperate to regain a foothold in the international arena and reclaim its sovereignty and power after the war, the Japanese government willingly spent scarce funding on research labs and nuclear reactors.

Japan’s wartime experience had prepared her to build a nuclear industry from scratch, but with Atoms for Peace, it was cheaper to import complete reactors from the West.

Atoms for Peace supported British and Canadian nuclear exports as well as American. Britain went first, selling its Magnox plant to Japan. General Electric and Westinghouse rapidly secured the rest of the industry, selling reactor designs and components to Japan at exorbitant prices. The Japanese industry quickly became a model for other Atoms for Peace countries. A generation of brilliant young Japanese scientists came of age during this period, all committed to the full exploitation of nuclear energy.

Once the industry was vitalized, Japan resumed its own nuclear research independent from the United States. Encouraged by the Americans, in 1956 Japan’s bureaucrats mapped out a plan to exploit the entire nuclear fuel cycle. At that time the concept was only theoretical, no more a reality than the atomic bomb was when Einstein penned his infamous letter to Roosevelt in 1939. According to the theory, plutonium could be separated from the spent fuel burned in conventional reactors and used to fuel new “breeder reactors.” No one had yet been able to make it work, but this was the dawn of the age of technology. Scientists in Japan, America and Europe were intoxicated with the possibilities of scientific advancements. Japan’s central planners and bureaucrats were equally enthusiastic. The breeder reactor plan would make the most efficient use of the raw uranium Japan imported from the United States. It would wean Japan from her dependence on American energy and also create an enormous stockpile of plutonium – the most powerful and difficult to obtain bomb material.

Secret Cold War Nuclear Policies

Prime Minister Sato with President Johnson

In October 1964, communist China stunned the world by detonating its first nuclear bomb. The world was caught by surprise, but nowhere were emotions as strong as in Japan. Three months later Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato went to Washington for secret talks with President Lyndon Johnson. Sato gave LBJ an extraordinary ultimatum: if the United States did not guarantee Japan’s security against nuclear attack, Japan would develop a nuclear arsenal. The ultimatum forced LBJ to extend the U.S. “nuclear umbrella” over Japan. Ironically, this guarantee later enabled Sato to establish Japan’s Three Non-Nuclear Principles: to never own or produce nuclear weapons or allow them on Japanese territory. The policy won Sato the Nobel Prize for Peace. The Japanese public and the rest of the world never knew that these three principles were never fully enforced, and Sato allowed the secret nuclear weapons program to go on.

In the years to come, thousands of U.S. nuclear weapons would pass through Japanese ports and American bases in Japan. Even before Sato’s historic meeting with LBJ, Japan had quietly agreed to officially ignore U.S. nuclear weapons stored in Japan. Japanese officials were shrewd enough to put nothing down on paper, but U.S. Ambassador to Tokyo Edwin O. Reischauer disclosed the pact in a 1981 newspaper interview. In 1960, the Japanese government had verbally agreed to allow nuclear-armed American warships access to Japanese ports and territorial waters. Several current and former U.S. and Japanese officials confirm Ambassador Reischauer’s interpretation, including the former Japanese Ambassador in Washington, Takezo Shimoda.

When asked about these issues in the 1980s, the Japanese government flatly denied there was any such understanding and said it was “inconceivable” that it had a different interpretation of the treaty conditions than the United States. Nonetheless, after Prime Minister Zenko Suzuki ordered his Foreign Ministry to investigate the facts, the best it could do was to say it could find no written records of the pact.

Declassified U.S. government documents make a mockery of the Three Non-Nuclear Principles. The papers reveal that Japanese government officials ignored evidence that the United States was routinely bringing nuclear weapons into Japanese ports. American military planners took Japan’s silence as tacit permission to carry nuclear weapons into Japanese harbors. The American aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk, home ported for decades in Yokohama, routinely carried a small arsenal of nuclear weapons.

Japan even participated in joint military exercises in which U.S. forces simulated the use of nuclear weapons. These revelations underline the dichotomy between the Japanese government’s public policies and its actions regarding nuclear weapons.

One of the pivotal debates in Japan during the early 1970s was whether to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The treaty basically froze the nuclear status quo. The five nuclear powers retained their arsenals while the rest of the world pledged to abstain from nuclear weapons. More than a hundred countries signed the treaty. The only notable exceptions were the few states that held open the nuclear option: India, Pakistan, Israel and Japan. The debate, like most decisions on these issues in Japan, was not carried out in a public forum. But the Americans were listening, and what they heard put Japan’s nuclear ambitions in a completely new light.

Yasuhiro Nakasone was Director of the Japanese Defense Agency and one of a new generation of pro-nuclear politicians. Though he was not in favor of immediate nuclear armament, he opposed any action that would limit Japan’s right to develop nuclear weapons in the future. Nakasone was one of the principal authors of a 1969 policy paper that said in a chapter on national security: “For the time-being Japan’s policy will be not to possess nuclear weapons. But it will always maintain the economic and technical potential to manufacture nuclear weapons and will see to it that Japan won’t accept outside interference on this matter.”

Six years later Nakasone was again embroiled in the nuclear debate. At stake was Japan’s ability to go nuclear and the biggest prize in Japanese politics – the prime minister’s gavel. Nakasone assured his rise to prime minister by outwardly supporting the NPT. The price for Japan’s cooperation was President Gerald Ford’s pledge not to interfere with Japan’s nuclear programs, even when they included material and technology ideally suited to nuclear weapons use. With Ford’s guarantee, Japan finally ratified the NPT in 1976. Japan’s nuclear commerce continued unabated. The United States continued to supply enriched uranium to Japanese reactors and allowed the spent fuel to be reprocessed in Europe and the plutonium shipped back to Japan, where it was stockpiled for future use in breeder reactors.

Stopping the Spread of Fissile Material

Jimmy Carter Tours TMI Control Room

After Jimmy Carter won the presidency in 1976, he instituted an aggressive policy to control the spread of fissile materials. As a former nuclear reactor engineer on a Navy submarine, Carter knew better than any other world leader the immense power locked up in plutonium and highly enriched uranium. He was determined to keep it out of the hands of even our closest non-nuclear allies – including Japan.

Carter had good reason for this policy. Despite Japan’s ratification of the NPT in 1976, a study conducted for the CIA the following year named Japan as one of the three countries most able to go nuclear before 1980. Only the Japanese people’s historic opposition to nuclear weapons argued against Japanese deployment. Every other factor argued for a Japanese nuclear capability. By now the CIA – and its more secretive sister agency, the NSA — had learned the position of Japan’s inner circle.

Carter knew the incredibly volatile effect plutonium would have on world stability. Plutonium is the single most difficult to obtain ingredient of nuclear bombs. Even relatively backward countries – and some terrorist groups – now possess the technology to turn plutonium or highly enriched uranium into a nuclear weapon. But refining plutonium or enriching uranium is an extremely difficult, costly task. Carter knew that by limiting the spread of plutonium and uranium, he could control the spread of nuclear weapons. He made preventing the spread of plutonium the cornerstone of his nuclear non-proliferation policy.

The Japanese were shocked when Carter entered office and promptly pushed through Congress the 1978 Non-Proliferation Act, which subjected every uranium and plutonium shipment to congressional approval and blocked a host of sensitive nuclear technologies from Japan. Carter was determined not to transfer nuclear technology or materials that Japan could use to make nuclear weapons. The decision was hugely unpopular in America’s nuclear establishment as well. America’s nuclear scientists had expected much from Carter since he was one of them: someone who knew and understood nuclear energy.

Carter’s efforts ended America’s plans to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. Carter stopped reprocessing because he feared the consequences of Korean or Taiwan stockpiling plutonium. He believed it would lead to an Asian arms race involving Japan and China as well as Korea or Taiwan.

Carter’s U.S. nuclear doctrine was enormously unpopular among America’s nuclear science elite, who viewed a plutonium-based fuel cycle as the future of nuclear energy. They saw the atom as the solution to the problems that had stalled America’s great economic boom – acid rain from coal, shortages and embargos of oil. With an almost inexhaustible supply of cheap, clean nuclear energy, America would reclaim its position as the world’s unquestioned economic leader. But for many it went beyond even that. If America could complete the fuel-cycle – complete the nuclear circle, all of humanity could be lifted up by the nuclear bootstrap. At research centers around the country and in the Department of Energy’s Forrestal Building on Washington’s Independence Avenue, enthusiasm for the breeder program reached almost a religious crescendo.

If the breeder reactor was going to revolutionize the world’s nuclear economy, went the thinking in America’s nuclear establishment, the United States would have to share it with her allies in Europe and Japan. The very cornerstone of science is the free exchange of information, and the American scientists shared openly with their European and Japanese colleagues. The cooperation ran both ways. The breeder reactor was proving to be a monumental technical challenge, and DOE was eager to learn from the mistakes of Germany, Britain and France, all of which had been working on the problem nearly as long as the United States. Carter’s policies hindered America’s efforts to develop and share a plutonium-based nuclear energy cycle.

To the chagrin of the powerful nuclear weapons and nuclear power lobbies, Carter abandoned the idea of a new nuclear renaissance. Carter’s administration ushered in an era of reduced nuclear trade and an interruption to the free flow of ideas among scientists. For men like Richard T. Kennedy and Ben Rusche at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Harry Bengelsdorf at the U.S. Department of Energy, the restraints were completely unacceptable. Jimmy Carter’s re-election defeat brought the nuclear establishment another opportunity.

Reversing Course – Reagan Undermines Carter’s Policies

Richard Kennedy

One of the most passionate nuclear believers was a career bureaucrat named Richard Kennedy. A former Army officer, he labored in obscurity at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, his career held hostage by his vehement opposition to President Carter’s nuclear policies. All of that changed after Ronald Reagan’s election in 1980. One of Reagan’s first acts as president was to effectively reverse Carter’s nuclear doctrine, which had barred the United States from using plutonium in civilian power projects with America’s friends or adversaries.

Reagan made Kennedy his right-hand man for nuclear affairs. From his new post as Ambassador at Large for Nuclear Energy, Kennedy oversaw the dismantling of the Carter policies he despised. The new administration rejuvenated American and international reliance on plutonium.

But one legacy of the Carter years hobbled America’s headlong leap into international nuclear commerce. Carter had pushed through Congress in 1978 the Atomic Energy Act, a sweeping piece of legislation that strictly limited how foreign countries could import and use nuclear materials originating in the United States. Under the Act, Congress had to approve every single shipment of reactor fuel that crossed an international border. The law was an insufferable impediment to Kennedy’s vision of unfettered nuclear commerce. So he set out to circumvent it.

In the early days of the Reagan buildup, as the massive injection of cash into America’s conventional and nuclear war-making industries dramatically increased, the administration force-fed money to the nuclear scientists designing new warheads and attempting to solve the nuclear breeder reactor conundrum.

Clinch River Breeder Reactor Design

At the center of this plan was an experimental facility at the DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee’s scenic Clinch River valley. Here in the Appalachian foothills, America’s most brilliant scientists were assembling a breeder reactor. The technology held incredible promise. As it generated power, it transformed previously spent nuclear fuel into pure plutonium. The breeder became the Holy Grail of nuclear science, a closed fuel cycle that would open up an almost limitless supply of energy. The Clinch River breeder project was on the cutting edge of technology, and, under Reagan, the Department of Energy flooded the project with money. The project cost $16 billion dollars between 1980 and 1987. And then, as suddenly as it had begun, Congress stopped the program cold.

Despite the efforts of the country’s best minds and nearly limitless budgets, the breeder program did not work. And it was not only the Clinch River team who failed. Breeder programs in Germany, France and the United Kingdom also could not make the leap from lab experiment to commercially viable practice. Reagan’s commitment to new nuclear weapons never flagged, but as the mid-eighties recession dragged on, he could not protect every facet of the military industrial complex from congressional cost-cutting. In 1987, Congress pulled the funding on Clinch River. To the cadre of scientists and Energy Department bureaucrats who had made the breeder reactor their life’s work, it was a disaster. Yet despite their failure and the nation’s lack of support, they remained faithful to the idea of the nuclear fuel cycle.

In the meantime, one country was still doggedly pursuing the breeder technology: Japan. In 1987, the resources of Japan’s runaway economy seemed limitless. If any nation could make the breeder economically viable, it was Japan. But if Japanese scientists were to succeed, they would need to start where the Americans had left off.

To understand what happened next requires an understanding of how American government really works. While administrations change every four or eight years and Congress, particularly the House of Representatives, regularly cycles its membership, the bureaucracy rolls on with almost monolithic continuity. In the bureaucracy, careerists can entrench behind their coveted projects to wait out administrations. Before Congress terminated the breeder program, Reagan left its future in the hands Richard T. Kennedy.

Kennedy looked like a Hollywood casting director’s version of the Washington insider, says long-time adversary Damon Moglen. “He had the nasty, florid appearance of a man who spent a lifetime in smoky back rooms, and his demeanor reeked of influence peddling. You could have seen him coming out of Tammany Hall.” Kennedy’s friends were kinder. Ben Rusche, a colleague at the NRC, praised Kennedy’s political instincts. “He was very attuned, perhaps to a degree greater than many that were in the business, to political realities both internally and externally.” Friend and foe alike agree that Kennedy trampled over lesser bureaucrats who stood in his way. He was the perfect man to orchestrate the salvation of the American breeder program by transferring it part and parcel to Japan.

The plan would require a masterful manipulation of Washington’s byzantine bureaucratic process. A technology transfer of this magnitude requires the approval of hundreds of officials at dozens of agencies. But precisely because it is so large and complicated, a canny insider can shepherd it through channels with the aid of a small cadre of true believers. Eight years of joint breeder development with Japan had created a crop of young scientists and bureaucrats passionately devoted to the cause. And Kennedy was still flush with an improbable victory—forcing Congress to allow the sale of nuclear reactors to Communist China in 1985.

Giving to Both Sides – Nuclear deals with China and Japan

Westinghouse AP 1000 in China

In 1984 the Westinghouse Corporation had struck a deal to supply nuclear reactors to China worth as much as $10 billion. The deal was an incredible windfall for the American nuclear industry and would be a cornerstone in Kennedy’s efforts to make the United States dominate in the world’s nuclear commerce. The only problem was China’s abysmal record of sharing nuclear secrets with all bidders.

In a bitter session on the Senate floor, then Democratic Assistant Majority Leader Alan Cranston charged that the Reagan administration on Kennedy’s watch had “systematically withheld, suppressed and covered up information – known virtually throughout the executive branch – which Congress might find worrisome.” China was already known to have sold nuclear technology to five international nuclear outlaws: Pakistan, Iran, South Africa, Brazil and Argentina. By 1984, Cranston and most of the American government knew that China had given sophisticated nuclear weapons designs to Pakistan. Beijing had also sold the enriched uranium that would find its way into South Africa’s nuclear bombs. China sold heavy water for use in Argentina’s bomb program, while also selling nuclear materials to arch rival Brazil and negotiating nuclear agreements with Iran. China’s nuclear proliferation track record could hardly have been worse, but instead of negotiating ironclad safeguards, Kennedy returned from Beijing with an agreement so ambiguous that both sides could interpret it however they liked. China had refused to sign a non-proliferation pledge or agree to give the United States the right to prevent China from reprocessing fuel burned in the reactors into plutonium for use in nuclear weapons.

Democratic Assistant Majority Leader Alan Cranston

Kennedy returned to Beijing in June 1985 to lead the American side of the nonproliferation negotiations. He brought back a new agreement that was almost identical to the first. But $10 billion projects die hard in Washington, and a threat to cancel Chinese Premier Deng Xiaoping’s upcoming visit to Washington provided Kennedy the opening he needed. As the administration promoted its argument that the best way to contain the Chinese nuclear threat was to become its primary supplier, Westinghouse passed out subcontracts that made the deal popular among politicians.

The China agreement had forged Kennedy’s inner circle into an administrative juggernaut, and despite the potential rewards awaiting key players in lobbying firms and Japanese-funded think tanks, the nucleus of Kennedy’s circle remained in the government. Now with the Japanese breeder program on the line, Kennedy’s right-hand man at the U.S. State Department, Fred McGoldrick, and DOE contractor Harold Bengelsdorf, would rally breeder disciples throughout the government. Their goal was to transfer the American taxpayer funded technology of the $16 billion Clinch River project to Japan’s largest utility company for less than one-thousandth the American investment. The plan had already been approved, largely by Japanese and American consultants working for the Big Five Japanese corporations.

Two major obstacles stood in their way. U.S. and international law strictly limited the technology developed in the Clinch River program, particularly reprocessing technology used to separate plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. And the plan would require hundreds of international shipments of weapons-grade plutonium and high level nuclear waste on ships.

Lewis Dunn, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

In the early days of 1986, Kennedy met almost daily with Lewis Dunn, a midlevel functionary in the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. ACDA had the contract to write the proliferation threat assessment that would determine in large part whether the deal with Japan would survive.

Dunn had committed his career to opposing the spread of nuclear weapons. But like Kennedy, he believed that the best way to manage nuclear technology was to become the world’s leading nuclear supplier. In his quiet, determined way, Dunn was as powerful an advocate of the Japan agreement as Kennedy. Records of Dunn’s frequent meetings with Kennedy remain classified, but Kennedy’s calendars reveal an extraordinarily close collaboration between the two men.

Dunn worked for ACDA, a semi-autonomous agency housed in the State Department’s office building at Foggy Bottom. At least three times a week for nearly a year, Dunn made the long walk from ACDA’s offices on the third floor to Kennedy’s corner office. They talked for hours about the threat assessment that Congress would use to decide whether or not to allow the transfer to Japan.

The report Dunn penned made the agency rounds in the middle of 1986 and met with immediate skepticism from the Pentagon, the CIA and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Central Intelligence Agency had been warning for years that Japan had the technology, and perhaps the will, to go nuclear. Contrary to the popular view inside the U.S. government, Japan had never given up the legal right to go nuclear. In fact, in a series of policy papers and internal debates going back to the early 1950s, Japanese policymakers had explicitly reserved the nuclear option. Most tellingly, an internal planning document that circulated at the highest level of Japanese government in 1969 stated that Japan would maintain —and, if necessary, develop – the technical and financial means to develop nuclear weapons. In an ominous aside, the paper vowed to do so “no matter what foreign pressures were applied.”

The CIA knew of the 1969 planning paper and reams of other evidence that suggested Japan had the will and the means to go nuclear if it felt threatened. Reports the CIA sent to U.S. presidents on the issue beginning in the 1960s shored up the nuclear umbrella commitment Lyndon Johnson had made to Prime Minister Eisaku Sato in 1965. The agency made sure that every president since LBJ knew Japan’s nuclear potential. Yet the warnings rarely trickled down to the working levels of the bureaucracy, where nuts and bolts decisions such as the transfer of the Clinch River hardware and research results were hammered out with Japan.

Getting Around The Department of Defense

The CIA had been skeptical of Japan’s nuclear program for decades. The CIA and NSA eavesdropped routinely on America’s allies as well as her adversaries. Over the years, the CIA had consistently reported that Japan had both the potential and – under the right circumstances – the will to go nuclear.

But in 1987, when Kennedy was pushing hard to accelerate the trade in nuclear secrets and materials with Japan, the CIA was out of the loop. Ironically, the agency that knew the most about Japan’s nuclear potential knew the least about the internal deliberations in the United States about transferring nuclear technology to Japan. The CIA is charged with monitoring foreign governments. While it has never completely restrained itself from spying on rival agencies, in this case the agency knew almost nothing about Kennedy’s internal effort to move the Clinch River project to Japan. Ultimately, the CIA was cut out of the decision. The role of chief opponent belonged to the Pentagon.

State, DOE and ACDA favored wholesale collaboration with Japan, while the Pentagon feared terrorists could hijack sea shipments of bomb-grade plutonium carried between Europe and Japan. Leading the Pentagon’s camp was Fred Ikle, Reagan’s Undersecretary of Defense for Nuclear Programs. Ikle’s concern about terrorist attacks was genuine, but a far greater concern lurked beneath the surface of open debate, a subject so politically unpopular that it was barely raised outside the Pentagon. For years intelligence analysts at DOD and the CIA had believed that Japan was capable of developing a formidable nuclear arsenal. Though few in the administration doubted Japan’s technical abilities, Ikle and a few others were alone in their belief that Japan had the political potential to go nuclear.

Captain James Auer

Kennedy had one ally in the Pentagon. Captain James Auer was the Japan officer in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. He was the Pentagon’s first authority on all things Japanese. Auer had spent nearly half his 20-year naval career in Japan, first as commanding officer of a guided missile frigate home-ported in Yokohama, and later as a student at the Japanese equivalent of the U.S. Naval Academy. Like many Westerners who come into close contact with Japanese culture, Auer was a convert. He spoke the language, read the literature and became a connoisseur of the Japanese classic dance form, Kabuki.

That talent would serve him well in the Pentagon in 1986, as the American military bureaucracy squared off against the State and Energy departments over Japan. While the civilian bureaucrats viewed Japan as a vibrant and able partner in world affairs, and particularly in the field of nuclear energy, the warriors in the Pentagon held a far darker view. Since the time of the Korean War, the American military had regarded Japan largely as a freeloader that had built its monstrously successful economy on the backs of American servicemen who held the Soviets, Chinese and North Koreans at bay. Before any evidence had been examined, the Defense Department was far less likely to be sympathetic to Japan’s case than were the other major agencies in Washington.

The chief exception to this rule was Auer, who as a committed Japanophile was also in exactly the right place to help push the U.S.-Japan Agreement through the Pentagon. Early in 1986, Auer’s name begins to appear in Kennedy’s official calendar. As the Japan Desk officer at Defense, Auer was privy to almost all of the paperwork and high-level meetings regarding the proposed plutonium deal. He also was in weekly contact with his many friends and colleagues in the Japanese Embassy and at the Big Five corporate offices that served as a shadow foreign service for Japan. It is not clear whether Auer leaked the Pentagon’s deliberations or strategy to Kennedy or the Japanese. The Pentagon’s chief concern with the U.S.-Japan Agreement was the transport of enormous quantities of weapons-grade plutonium and nuclear waste along sea-lanes that could not be adequately defended.

The Pentagon confronted Kennedy on the security issue. In report after report, the Defense Department concluded that nothing less than a destroyer escort could adequately protect the plutonium shipments. Men like Richard Spear, with twenty years command experience in the Navy, found their warnings overruled by Kennedy and his colleagues on the strength of Lewis Dunn’s ACDA analysis. In the only plutonium shipment through the Panama Canal before the U.S.-Japan Agreement entered force, the Navy deployed a small armada to ensure its safe passage. The operation was coordinated by Lt. Col. Oliver North, of Iran-Contra fame. Now, on the force of an analysis conducted almost entirely within Foggy Bottom by Kennedy and Dunn, the United States was preparing to allow hundreds of tons of plutonium and other fissile materials to transit the high seas protected only by a few policemen on a cargo ship.

Frank Gaffney, then a deputy assistant secretary for defense, recalls the Pentagon’s reaction to the transport plan as one of almost total resistance. “There was just no way we were going to protect those shipments. It would be too much of a drain on our readiness. And the Japanese were neither willing nor able to stop a determined attack halfway around the world.”

The scenario Ikle and Gaffney foresaw was a slow and poorly armed nuclear transport vessel incapable of fighting off even a lone gunboat. A plutonium laden ship would be at the mercy of any nation or terrorist organization that could get its hands on a World War Il-vintage destroyer or even an armed speed-boat.

The Pentagon had favored air transport of the plutonium, but that option had been stymied when supposedly crash-proof casks smashed open in tests. Greenpeace got the tests results and took them straight to the media. That ended the Pentagon’s favored option of transporting plutonium and high-level nuclear waste by air. The Defense Department also had concerns that the Japanese would use the plutonium in their own weapons program. Except for the CIA, no branch of the U.S. government believed more firmly that Japan could one day go nuclear. But a nuclear Japan was not a deal-breaker for Defense as much as it would be for other agencies. In the ongoing industrial, economic and ideological campaign against communism, Japan was perhaps America’s strongest Cold War ally. Although her military was purely defensive, and she did not have the will in 1986 to use it, the long memories at Defense recalled a Japan that had been an extremely formidable military force. Many of the top-ranking officers came from old-line military families and had fathers and uncles who had fought against the Japanese in World War II. If the State Department regarded Japan as an enormous pacifist economic engine, and Energy regarded her as a surrogate womb for its cherished breeder reactor, Defense still saw Japan as a sleeping giant. But this time the giant was on America’s side.

A nuclear-armed Japan would relieve much of the drain on American military resources. The need to keep two divisions on the ground in Korea, as well as nuclear armed ships and aircraft in the Pacific as a hedge against China and the missile bases in the Soviet Far East detracted from the Pentagon’s chief mission – preparing for all-out war on the plains of Central Europe. The Reagan administration’s strategy was to push the Soviet war machine until it broke, taking the Soviet Union and its satellite regimes with it. A more aggressive, nuclear-armed Japan would be a tremendous asset in this effort. So while Defense fought against the sea-shipment of plutonium on tactical grounds, its opposition to plutonium and technology transfer to Japan was only pro forma.

Auer was able to capitalize on this sentiment behind the scenes. Late in 1986, the Pentagon grudgingly signed off on Dunn’s report stating that sea transport of plutonium did not constitute a major proliferation risk. The Pentagon was not the lead agency, Gaffney explains, so even had it fought tooth and nail, State and Energy would probably have been able to muster the support to defeat the opposition, and possibly the career ambitions of its major figures.

Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA.

The Secrets of Savannah River and Hanford

The Pentagon knew that the Clinch River technology was ideally suited for use in nuclear weapons. Most of the project’s theoretical research had been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. But the hardware development and much of the hands-on research took place at the plutonium separation canyons at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina, and at Hanford, Washington, two of the country’s other major nuclear weapons laboratories.

The facilities in Washington State were built to separate plutonium for the Manhattan Project in the early 1940s and had been vastly expanded in a new Savannah River facility in the 1950s and 60s. By the time the Clinch River program was in full swing, the plants that first gave birth to the bombs that leveled Hiroshima and Nagasaki and now were building hydrogen bomb warheads, were accepting dozens of Japanese visiting scientists each year. When the program’s demise became inevitable, the Japanese came in even greater numbers.

Savannah-river-site-2

The breeder reactor runs on plutonium, a substance that is otherwise useful only in nuclear weapons. Any technology that yielded plutonium was by definition a nuclear weapons project. In the United States, such projects are limited to a handful of nuclear weapons facilities owned exclusively by the government. President Harry Truman, recognizing the inherent risk of privatizing nuclear weapons capability, established the American bomb program independent of private industry and the military.

The most sensitive technologies in the Clinch River project were housed on these remote nuclear reservations. And from the very outset, Japanese industry officials wanted onto the American bases to see what they were getting. The U.S.-Japan Agreement called for a five-year period of cooperation in which Japanese and American scientists would work together on breeder projects, funded largely by the Japanese utilities. The idea, as DOE project director William Burch put it, is to “stay in the ball game.” To stay in the game, the United States would have to play by Japan’s rules. And the specific items Japan wanted came straight from the nuclear weapons program.

On top of the list was sophisticated plutonium separation hardware housed at the Savannah River Site, which had churned out weapons plutonium for a generation. Savannah River built and tested centrifuges, which after further testing at the Argonne National Laboratory, were shipped to Japan for use in the Recycle Energy Test Facility (RETF), a deceptively named plant for separating weapons-grade plutonium from spent fuel. RETF was central to the Japanese breeder reactor plan. The Japanese needed the high-capacity plant to manufacture their own high-grade plutonium. While the plant was under construction, Japan contracted the refining job to France and Great Britain.

America’s experience producing military plutonium at Savannah River was ideally suited for use in the Japanese program. Other U.S. weapons labs have also contributed to the Japanese program. Hanford and the Argonne-West laboratory in Idaho conducted thousands of hours of tests on plutonium fuel assemblies for the Joyo breeder reactor. Japanese scientists were integrally involved in these tests and had virtual free-run of the U.S. nuclear weapons establishment. If Japan does someday deploy nuclear weapons, it will have been made possible by the wholesale transfer of weapons-usable technology through the U.S.-Japan Agreement.

US-Japan Alliance Discuss Importance of U.S. Nuclear Umbrella

The Agreement between the Energy Department and Japan’s monolithic nuclear energy utility, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), violated a laundry-list of anti-nuclear prohibitions. It provided no Japanese guarantee that nuclear material would not be transferred to other countries without American consent, nor any assurance that Japan would not reprocess American reactor fuel into plutonium without prior U.S. approval. In short, the United States abdicated all control of U.S.- origin nuclear material in Japan for the next 30 years.

The deal also violated Carter’s Atomic Energy Act, a U.S. law which mandates that the reprocessing or retransfer of American nuclear material must not increase the risk of proliferation. In particular, the agreement did not ensure timely warning to the United States of any diversion for weapons purposes. In fact, Japan has lost track of more than 70 kilograms of weapons-grade plutonium at its accident plagued Tokai reprocessing plant – enough to make more than 20 nuclear weapons. In a single agreement, the United States ceded control of nuclear material and gave up whatever safety margin it had to prevent a rapid nuclear deployment. At the time of the transfer, officials in both Washington and Tokyo knew that the only thing the breeder program would produce reliably was plutonium and that it would churn it out in enormous quantities, and in a form twice as pure as the plutonium used in American nuclear weapons.

To the American bureaucrats and scientists who engineered the transfer, it was a coup for science and international cooperation. As always, the concept of a nuclear armed Japan was difficult to believe in light of the atomic devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

In addition to the wholesale transfer of U.S. fast-breeder and reprocessing technology to Japan, the U.S-Japan Agreement gave Japan the right to import unlimited amounts of nuclear materials from the United States, reprocess it into plutonium without restriction, and retransfer it to other countries.

Senator John Glenn

Senator John Glenn, who as a former astronaut knew enough science to grasp the implications of the agreement, fought vehemently against it. But Kennedy’s people had sent it to Capitol Hill unannounced, only hours before the holiday recess. Most of Glenn’s supporters had already left, and he could only stand back and watch as the agreement passed. The Comptroller General of the United States immediately declared the agreement illegal. President George H.W. Bush signed it anyway. Before signing the U.S.-Japan Agreement, the United States had considered requests to separate plutonium from U.S.-origin fuel on a request-by-request basis. This agreement, instead, gave Japan blanket authority to reprocess and store U.S.-origin nuclear material within Japan, as well as the authority to transfer spent fuel to designated facilities in Europe for plutonium separation.

Soon after the legislation was signed into law, Kennedy and his team were duly rewarded. For James Auer, the Navy captain who had helped Kennedy get the agreement past the Pentagon, it was a great career boost. Auer, soon after passage, traded in his Navy Blue for the tweed jacket of a tenured professor at Vanderbilt University in a new position at a think tank fully funded by Japanese industry.

McGoldrick and Bengelsdorf retired from government service several years later and established a business of their own making hundreds of thousands of dollars as private consultants for the Japanese nuclear industry.

By 1988, when the Senate ratified Kennedy’s U.S.-Japan Nuclear Agreement, Japan was one of only a few countries in the world that regarded plutonium as an asset, not a liability. The Soviets and Americans were trying to devise ways to store and secure vast quantities of this long-lived, radioactive element. In places like Germany and Italy, strong public protests compelled governments to store plutonium outside their own national borders.

 

Japan’s Weapons Delivery Program

By the 1970s, Japan began to aggressively pursue a space program. Japan had risen from her World War II defeat to establish herself as a premier manufacturing and technological power. The Jet Age had given way to the Space Age, and a world power like Japan had to have its own space program. The decision, as is almost always the case in Japan, was pragmatic rather than emotional. Communications in the future would depend on satellites, and warfare would be conducted with long-range missiles. By 1969, Japan had already decided to maintain the ability to go nuclear on short notice. From the start, long-range ballistic missiles and satellite targeting abilities were part of that defense architecture.

In 1969 Japan delved aggressively into space, opening the National Aerospace Development Agency (NASDA) and funded it lavishly. The agency’s goal was to promote the useful role of space. Japan was not interested in a headlong race to the moon; it wanted satellites for communication and surveillance. And it knew how to get them.

Just as America transferred nuclear technology to Japan under Atoms for Peace, America opened its space secrets to Japan as well. NASDA developed the N-I liquid-fuel launch vehicle with American assistance and used it to loft the Kiku 2 communications satellite in 1977. The feat made Japan the third nation, after the United States and the Soviet Union, to place an artificial satellite in geostationary orbit.

After the successful launch of Kiku 2, NASDA developed the N-II and H-II rockets, to launch various utility satellites for telecommunications, broadcasting, weather monitoring and other Earth observation functions. The H-II — a large-scale and highly efficient international class launcher — has been flying since 1994. The H-II’s lift capability corresponded to the ability to launch nuclear payloads to transcontinental ranges. Despite the initial success of Kiku II, Japan’s consistent stumbling block was accuracy. Unlike the Americans, and even the Russians, Japanese rocket scientists lacked the ability to consistently place satellites in precise orbits.

Successors to the Kiku II had a history of imprecise, wobbly orbits. Kiku III, designed for a decade of service, exhausted its fuel trying to hold its orbit and fell from the sky after only two and a half years. Kiku IV lasted less than two years. As scientists everywhere do when faced with a hard problem, the Japanese looked for a shortcut. It came with the decline of Soviet communism.

In 1991, the seemingly airtight security of the Soviet space and missile programs was thrown wide open as scientists fled to the West. Japan’s secret service capitalized on the chaos and procured the design and some hardware of an SS-20 missile bus, the critical third stage of the Soviets’ then most advanced medium-range ballistic missile. With its three warheads, the SS-20 bus was an engineering treasure, from which Japan learned a great deal about missile guidance. They learned from the Russian missile how to place several warheads on one rocket. The technology, called MIRVing, is key to all modern ballistic missile forces. When one missile disgorges several warheads to an individual target, it is virtually impossible to defend against it.

Japan also developed the Lunar-A moon probe, a space exploration vehicle that in many ways resembles an intercontinental ballistic missile system. The Lunar-A system was designed to place three probes at exactly determined targets on the moon. The technology is directly transferable to a ballistic missile application. In addition to testing multiple reentry vehicle technology and targeting, the probe could test Japan’s ability to produce hardened electronics. The instruments aboard the probe would have to withstand the tremendous pressure of striking the moon’s surface and burrowing into the rock. This is precisely the same technology the United States has perfected for its bunker-busting small nuclear weapons, such as the B-61-11 developed for the B-2 bomber. The technology perfected in the Lunar-A mission gave Japan the option to develop nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles as sophisticated as any in the world.

Regional Concerns and Early Nuclear Catastrophes

Ambassador Walter Mondale

The mood toward nuclear weapons was changing in Japan. Perhaps the most telling statement was uttered by cabinet minister Hatsumo Hada to then U.S. Ambassador Walter Mondale at an embassy dinner party. Hada, who later became ambassador to China, told Mondale that Japan would have to go nuclear if North Korea obtained the bomb or the regional security situation worsened. The Japanese public would have to be educated, Hada said, but that would not present a problem. The fragility of the stability of the area over the years has only increased as China and North Korea’s tested nuclear weapons. Japan feels it must be ready to quickly respond in the region. In the early 1980s, when her bubble economy burst, Japan cut back on spending in many areas. But it never abandoned its commitment to nuclear energy. In that area, it was still a world leader.

In the 1990s, the governor of Tokyo prefecture –essentially Tokyo’s mayor and one of Japan’s most powerful politicians, Shintaro Ishihara, first openly advocated the acquisition of a nuclear arsenal. Surprisingly, there was little public outcry, and the governor was re-elected by a wide margin.

From the very start, the Japanese breeder program was predicated on the belief that Japanese industry could do what the Americans and Europeans had failed to do – run the extremely complicated breeder cycle safely and profitably. That belief was rooted in Japan’s national self-confidence, nurtured by two generations of success in manufacturing. Japan’s dedicated and educated workforce and its special brand of quality management made it the world leader in a host of industries. Nuclear power generation would, it was believed, merely be one more success, made possible by Japan’s superior workers and management.

Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant

Thirty years ago even Japan’s harshest critics might have agreed that perhaps it could succeed where Western efforts had failed. But that optimism soon faded as a string of nuclear catastrophes demonstrated that nuclear industries are far different than any other. Both the Monju fast-breeder reactor in 1995 and the Tokai reprocessing plant in April 1997 suffered serious, accidental radiation leaks; both accidents were the subjects of attempted cover-ups. Most egregious was the fire and leak of radioactive sodium at the Monju FBR. Japan’s Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the government corporation that operated Monju, lied repeatedly to the public about the accident. PNC attempted to suppress video footage that showed the cause of the accident: a ruptured pipe in a secondary cooling system that had spilled an estimated two to three tons of radioactive sodium – the largest such leak in the history of fast-breeder technology. One of the reasons PNC gave for releasing the misinformation was that Monju was too important to Japan’s energy program to jeopardize the reactor’s operation. In other words, the public’s safety was secondary to the breeder program.

Had it not been for a courageous act by a group of Fukui prefecture officials in the early morning of December 11, PNC’s attempted cover-up probably would have succeeded. Suspecting a cover-up, the officials entered the plant and secured the videotape. The action came as a direct result of a previous accident at Fukui’s Tsuruga Unit I reactor in the early 1980s. Fukui prefecture officials were not permitted to investigate that mishap. When the Monju accident took place, the officials were determined not to be turned away a second time. Following revelations that the agency itself had been involved in trying to withhold the video, a PNC executive committed suicide.

In the midst of the major problems at Japan’s nuclear facilities, a military response not seen since World War II came back into the Japanese psyche. In the spring of 1999, Japanese warships fired on North Korean trawlers that had strayed into Japanese waters. This action was the first time Japanese guns had fired in anger since the end of the war. In pure military terms, the engagement was insignificant, but the North Pacific region took notice because it symbolized the reawakening of the Japanese warrior ethic.

Barnwell Nuclear Reprocessing Facility

Besides Japan, only France, Russia and Great Britain still regard plutonium as an asset. These countries have invested tens of billions of dollars in their commercial reprocessing industry. The United States abandoned its only reprocessing facility in Barnwell, S.C., just outside the gates of the Savannah River Site without ever operating the facility. Only huge government-owned plants in La Hague, France, and Sellafield, England, separate tons of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel for foreign customers. The biggest of these customers is Japan, which, despite its confidence in its ability to build a breeder reactor, had turned to purchasing plutonium from the British and French.

The plutonium that the French and British reprocessors return to Japan is pure enough to use in nuclear weapons, and some of it comes from uranium mined in the United States. Thanks to the U.S.-Japan Agreement pushed through by the Reagan administration’s Richard Kennedy, the United States no longer has any influence over the transport and use of this material. So even after Japan’s disastrous nuclear accidents, and despite efforts to limit nuclear weapons and prevent terrorist groups from obtaining nuclear material, U.S.-origin nuclear material is still being shipped to Japan by the ton. Every shipload contains enough plutonium for hundreds of bombs.

Though the Japanese people are among the world’s most ardent nuclear weapons opponents, Japan’s security is inextricably tied to nuclear weapons. The American nuclear umbrella is currently Japan’s last line of defense against nuclear armed neighbors like China and North Korea. And the Japanese leadership’s rationale has been that there is no real certainty that the Americans will step into a nuclear fray to protect Japan. With the possibility of bombs from China or North Korea exploding over its territory, many Japanese leaders have come to consider the nuclear option not merely desirable, but indispensable.

Richard Kennedy died in 1998 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. As the years passed his disciples lived lives of comfort. But as these men enjoyed the fruits of their labor for Ambassador Kennedy, the reality of the policies they had created were playing out in a most dramatic fashion.

Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Facility, Seascale, Cumbria, England

The Sellafield nuclear reprocessing facility is the British government-owned version of the Savannah River Site. Once dedicated to the production of the world’s most deadly substance, plutonium, the key ingredient of nuclear bombs, Sellafield was up until a few years ago the nearby town’s lifeblood. Sixty-five hundred people work at Sellafield separating the coveted plutonium from nuclear reactor fuel irradiated in power plants around the world. It is dangerous work. A microscopic particle of plutonium is enough to cause deadly lung or blood cancers. Sellafield produced plutonium by the ton, as well as even greater quantities of other radioactive wastes. Like Savannah River, the British plant spread radiation into the surrounding environment. Since 1952, fish, shellfish, and sea plants in the Irish Sea, and even the local pigeons, have been heavily contaminated with radioactive waste from Sellafield. The plutonium plant released into the sea 30 billion liters of radioactive waste in a single decade.

The most dangerous result of Sellafield’s reprocessing industry is the arms race it may cause on the other side of the world. That is because British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL), the government-owned corporation that runs Sellafield, churns out plutonium for the highest bidder. Dr. Frank Barnaby, a retired British nuclear weapons designer, says that the plutonium fuel produced at Sellafield that was repeatedly shipped to Japan was sufficiently pure to be used in nuclear weapons. He explains that both the United States and Great Britain have both built and tested nuclear weapons made with the so-called reactor grade plutonium.

The late Paul Leavanthal, a non-proliferation expert, said the people of Seascale, the town nearest Sellafield, unwittingly supplied plutonium that could have ended up in nuclear bombs, and charged that “the Thatcher British government did it in the name of British jobs.”

Ambassador Kennedy’s agreement required the ships transporting the materials to be escorted by government ships dedicated to protecting the plutonium from possible terrorist attack. The intent of this language was to require warships to escort the shipments, but, in response to domestic Japanese pressure, the shipping company persuaded the American, British and Japanese governments to allow two transport ships to escort each other. The transport ships are owned by Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited, a subsidiary of BNFL that is partially owned by a consortium of Japanese utility companies that wanted to save money.

The ongoing nuclear commerce between Japan and France and Britain soon became routine. The shipments of thousands of tons of U.S.-origin reactor waste for Japan each year were largely uneventful until the spring of 1995. Beyond profit, there is another reason France and Britain continue to ship plutonium to Japan. If they do not, Russia will. In economic terms, the balance of supply and demand favors Japan, the world’s only serious plutonium buyer. Faced with the prospect of a nuclear-armed Japan – and given the bloody history between these nations – Japan’s Asian neighbors began buying from Areva, the French government owned reprocessor.

These shipments have not been uneventful.

Pacific Pintail

The Fukushima nuclear disaster was not Japan’s first close call with nuclear weapons grade plutonium. Japan came very close to contaminating the Chilean coast on March 20, 1995, when the Pacific Pintail, laden with enough waste plutonium to build hundreds of nuclear bombs, tried to head into the protection of Chilean waters during a storm.

On March 20, 1995, Captain Blaine Axton had never seen worse weather in his forty years at sea. His lightly armed trawler, the Pacific Pintail, labored in the heavy seas, the 40-foot waves crashing over her bow, the spray flying away horizontally in the storm. He was in the midst of an Antarctic gale off Cape Horn at the tip of South America – the deadliest ocean in the world – but the weather was only one of Axton’s problems.

The Pintail was locked in a tense standoff with a Chilean Navy gunboat over the contents of the Pintail‘s hold: twenty-eight canisters of high-level plutonium-laden radioactive waste, en route from France to Japan. If the Pintail were to founder, her toxic cargo could poison the entire west coast of South America. Both Axton and his Chilean counterpart were acutely aware of the potential for disaster.

Through the spray and driving rain, Axton could make out a gunboat flying the Chilean flag. The Chilean captain had already warned Axton that he was authorized to use any means necessary to prevent the Pintail from entering Chile’s 200-mile exclusion zone. The language was clear to Axton; it was the most polite way of saying “turn around, or we’ll sink you or board you.”

The Chilean government was determined that if the Pintail were to go down, it should be as far away as possible from the South Sea fisheries that are a mainstay of the Chilean economy. The Chilean gunboat captain continued to shout warnings over the Guard Channel. As she battled her way through the sea to take up a firing position against the Pintail, her captain was on the radio to Santiago, begging for permission to open fire. It did not come. As Axton gambled, the Chileans were not about to put a cargo of nuclear waste at the bottom of their sea. The sea was so rough that both ships were struggling just to stay afloat. A boarding party was out of the question. The Chilean gunboat had no choice but to let her continue into Chilean waters, where the Pintail survived the storm in the lee of the Patagonian coast. Tellingly, when the storm-battered Pintail arrived in Japanese waters two weeks later, with a typhoon building in the east, her Japanese owners ordered the Pintail to wait out the storm 300 miles from Japanese shores.

Waste and Mox shipments from Europe

In September 2010, France’s Areva loaded the first plutonium-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel into Reactor Number 3 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.  As the years passed more and more Japanese leaders have become bolder in their pro-military and pro-nuclear pronouncements. In the weeks leading up to the March 2011 tsunami and nuclear disaster, the issue of a nuclear-armed Japan became very public after a Chinese captain was arrested after he rammed Japanese coast guard vessels with his ship. In an interview with the British newspaper, The Independent, Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara asserted that Japan could develop nuclear weapons within a year and send a strong message to the world. “All our enemies: China, North Korea and Russia – all close neighbors – have nuclear weapons. Is there another country in the world in a similar situation? People talk about the cost and other things but the fact is that diplomatic bargaining power means nuclear weapons. All the [permanent] members of the [United Nations] Security Council have them.” Ishihara told The Independent the clash, which ended when police released the captain of the Chinese ship accused of ramming the Japanese coast guard vessel, had exposed his country’s weakness in Asia. “China wouldn’t have dared lay a hand on the Senkakus [if Japan had nuclear weapons].”

The week before the governor made his comments, Beijing announced that its 2011 defense budget would be increased by 13 percent. Further adding to the tension with Japan is that China officially surpassed Japan as the world’s second largest economy in January 2011.

The governor said that a nuclear-armed Japan would also win more respect from Russia, which seized four Japanese-owned islands during the Second World War. And he advised his nation to rid itself of all restrictions in its constitution on the manufacture and sale of weapons. “We should develop sophisticated weapons and sell them abroad. Japan made the best fighters in the world before America crushed the industry. We could get that back.” Japanese nationalists have urged Japan’s postwar constitution, written by the United States during the American occupation, be abandoned. It makes Japan initiating war illegal.

A month after the governor made these comments, three reactors at the Fukushima nuclear power plant melted down including Reactor Number 3 with the plutonium-based MOX fuel. For the first time the larger Japanese public began to ask serious questions about the relationship between their government and the powerful Japanese utility companies and their plutonium stockpile.

A year later, more questions than answers remain.

Editor’s Note: Beginning in 1991 reporters for the National Security News Service undertook an investigation into a covert Japanese nuclear weapons program. Our work has continued over the years. It gave NSNS unique insights into the reasons for the misstatements and secrecy that surround the ongoing tragedy at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This story represents the work of a team of current and former reporters, fellows and interns for NSNS.

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Joseph Trento

Joseph Trento has spent more than 35 years as an investigative journalist, working with both print and broadcast outlets and writing extensively. Before joining the National Security News Service in 1991, Trento worked for CNN’s Special Assignment Unit, the Wilmington News Journal, and prominent journalist Jack Anderson. Trento has received six Pulitzer nominations and is the author of five books, including Prelude to TerrorThe Secret History of the CIAWidows, and Prescription for Disaster. Joe currently serves as the editor of DCBureau.org.

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Savannah River Site Gets Nuclear Waste – National Academy of Sciences Draft Report Confirms Nuclear Weapons Testing Not Needed

By Susan Trento, on September 29th, 2011

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Under Secretary of State for Arms Control Ellen Tauscher said on Monday, September 19, 2011, that high-level nuclear waste once destined for the Yucca Mountain repository will be sent, instead, to the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site.

Undersecretary of State for Arms Control Ellen Tauscher speaks about nuclear weapons, waste, and energy.

The decision to use the Savannah River Site in South Carolina as a permanent storage facility is controversial. It is the most radioactive site in the United States. Aiken County, in which part of the site is located, sued the Department of Energy unsuccessfully when the Obama Administration decided not to use the multi-billion-dollar Yucca Mountain facility in Nevada for high-level nuclear waste storage that was supposed to be removed from SRS.

Currently, millions of gallons of high-level nuclear waste are stored in 49 leaking tanks on the site as well as huge amounts of surplus plutonium. Deadly chemicals and radiation will contaminate the facility for thousands of years. “The Bomb Plant,” as locals refer to the site, is uniquely unsuitable for a permanent nuclear waste repository, according to leading geologists. It sits on an earthquake fault and one of the most important aquifers in the South. The sandy soil and swampy conditions make it highly vulnerable to waste seepage.

The Obama Administration has spent more than $1 billion in Stimulus Act funds cleaning up legacy Cold War nuclear and chemical waste at the site. Despite this effort, there is now more radioactive waste at SRS than when the clean-up started. The idea of bringing nuclear reactor waste and surplus weapons plutonium from around the world to SRS only exacerbates already chronic problems.

The 312 square mile site near Aiken, South Carolina, was once the home of five reactors that churned out nuclear materials for H-bombs. The last reactor at SRS had to be shuttered for safety reasons during the Reagan Administration. Tritium, which is needed for nuclear weapons, is produced by Tennessee Valley Authority reactors and processed into gas for nuclear weapons at SRS.

Today, DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration is paying the French-government-owned-company AREVA to supervise the construction of a new, multi-billion dollar facility to convert excess weapons plutonium into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for use in civilian nuclear power reactors. (AREVA provided a less potent MOX fuel to Fukushima Daiichi Reactor Number Three last September that suffered a hydrogen explosion after the March earthquake and tsunami.)

NNSA’s MOX plant is behind schedule and billions of dollars over budget. It does not have any paying customers for its fuel if it is ever made. It will create its own new waste stream. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has not licensed the plant, and SRS and DOE management are late reporting on the cost overruns.

COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN TREATY

Speaking to the Women’s Action for New Directions (WAND) annual Washington meeting, Under Secretary Tauscher said during a question and answer session that she had seen an early draft of the National Academy of Sciences report that confirms testing nuclear weapons is not necessary to maintain the quality of the U.S. nuclear arsenal. She urged support for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, explaining that the United States already complies with the treaty and ratification would give the country more authority to act against nations who did not abide by its provisions. Some critics of the treaty oppose it because they do not want to rely solely on computer modeling to verify the reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile.

FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR DISASTER

In perhaps what makes all of these discussions existent, when asked about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster last March in Japan, Secretary Tauscher said no one knows when or even if residents will be able to return to that area. She assured the audience the U.S. State Department is monitoring the situation and assisting whenever possible.

Smoke from Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Reactor Meltdown

 

Susan Trento

Susan Trento is PEC’s Executive Director and a DCBureau reporter and editor. She spearheaded investigations into contractor fraud while working on Capitol Hill. Her book about lobbying and public relations in Washington, The Power House, led reviewers to compare her work to Rachel Carson and Jessica Mitford. She is the co-author of several books and received the 2006 Triumph Award. She taught at the American University School of Communications.